Aeronautics National Space Craft Program Proposal Establishment Research Paper

Pages: 10 (2747 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Astronomy

Aeronautics

National Space Craft Program Proposal

Establishment of a Special committee on Special development

Apollo 1 (as-204)

Apollo 7 (as 205)

Apollo 9 (as 504)

Apollo 10 (as 505)

Apollo 11 (as 506)

Apollo 12 (as 507)

Apollo 13 (as 508)

Apollo 14 (as 509)

Apollo 15 (as 510)

Apollo 16 (as 511)

Apollo 17 (as 512)

Management Lessons

Apollo 1

Management lesson

Apollo communications and Design

Management Lesson

Estimated cost of Research and Development

The Apollo service module has greatly contributed to the development of Space exploration. With the development of different blocks and modifications done on the design and safety requirements, the Apollo has become more efficient than it was at it's inception. It has been characterized by a series of space launches that have led to the development of space activities by NASA such as the use of lunar vehicles, walking on the moon, installation of satellites in space among other accomplishments.

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The first launch of the Apollo was characterized by fatalities that occurred through an oxygen leak leading to the explosion of the space craft. Recent developments have however incorporated the development of better blocks of Apollo that has led to numerous discoveries in space. This has however not put an end to set backs experienced by NASA in carrying out successful space launches. A breakdown in communication and a defective craft wing are some of the setbacks that have characterized the launches of Apollo space crafts.

Apollo has been through approximately 20 launches with some having been unsuccessful. NASA still continues in these space activities with great military inspirations from government in the funding of such activities. This research study seeks to investigate the various launches, costs, and managerial lessons that the aeronautics field can learn from the Apollo Service Module.

Introduction

TOPIC: Research Paper on Aeronautics National Space Craft Program Proposal Establishment Assignment

Apollo command service module was a spacecraft built in 1960s by the United States that was supposed to travel to the moon. It was a lunar orbiter that came to be replaced years later by later models of spacecrafts. It was manufactured in North America by NASA and used successfully to fly crew to the sky lab space station which was jointly operated between American and Russian personnel. Block II CSM's were the only versions to fly unmanned (Wade, 2008)

The production of the Apollo Space craft was however characterized by development of different blocks to suit major safety concerns. This was majorly because the first blocks ever built had crew safety issues. This was because of an explosion that resulted in the death of astronauts; probably among the first in the history of space exploration. The first blocks were then developed into newer blocks that addressed the safety concerns.

The Apollo command space ship was later abandoned for another model: "The American Shuttle." This was then used to transport space crew to the moon. However, 40 years later, the American Shuttle was abandoned for another space craft: The CEV, which was a resemblance of the Apollo command space ship (Wade, 2008). No production was however run after the initial blocks of 13 block II capsules. The original Apollo space craft had its own specifications with a crew size of three astronauts and a length of 3.47 meters. No production was however run after the initial block of 13 block II capsules.

Figure 1: The Apollo Space craft

Source: http://www.astronautix.com/craft/apolocsm.htm

Missions

National Space Craft program Proposal

Rocket and Satellite research panel proposed a non-military space mission to accomplish among others an unmanned space instrument non-lunar landing, manned circumnavigation of the moon with a return to earth and an establishment of a lunar base (Fuji crystal, 2010). This space mission was collaborated by the American Rocket society and was also to exclude military operations in space. These mission objectives were to be carried out within the periods of 1959 and 1970. The last mission would be the establishment of the lunar station (Wade, 2008).

Establishment of a special committee on Space development

During the period of 1958, a special committee was established to find out the issues related to space development. H. Guyford Stever headed the committee from the Massachusetts Institute of technology (MIT) (Wade, 2008). Among the issues that were to be looked into, related to the space safety concerns and the economization of costs related to the development of the space crafts. There were a series of meetings by NASA that preceded the next launch of the space trip. Various areas of concerns were addressed by NASA including the weight of the space shuttle, the landing mechanism, survival of crew among other issues.

Apollo 1, (as-204)

This mission was characterized by an accident which was to be the launch pad for Apollo 204 (as-204) (Frasketi, 2010). The launch pad mission was to be a test pad for the first unmanned mission that was to be launched on February 21, 1967. Three astronauts lost their lives during this mission when fire engulfed the command module (Frasketi, 2010). Numerous deficiencies were noted in the communications assembly point caused by broken wiring bent pins and connector malfunctions (Wade, 2008) Certain design modifications also resulted in additional weak points and a cumbersome cable assembly connected to the crew members (Wade, 2008). The director for flight assembly then concluded that the communications malfunctions were too dire for flight operations (Wade, 2008). There were no more manned flights thereafter until the Apollo 7 flight of October 11, 1968 (Frasketi, 2010).

Apollo 7, (as-205)

This was the first successful manned flight of the Apollo that circulated the earth 163 times. It actually took 10 days and 20 hours. This was also the first mission to have a manned television broadcast during the mission (Frasketi, 2010). The mission had three crew members with a commander and two mission pilots. Regular broadcasts were beamed to earth; reporting on the experiences during this mission.

Apollo 9, (as-504)

This mission was launched during the periods of March 3-13, 1969. This was the first flight of the lunar module and the first flight of all lunar hardware on earth (Frasketi, 2010). An astronaut by the name Schweickart performed a 37 minutes space walk on the moon's surface. The flight lasted 10 days and one hour. The findings in this mission were that human weight was weightless on the moon. "Gum Drop" was the name given to the command module and the lunar module was named "spider." This mission was also undertaken by three astronauts; a commander and two pilots (Frasketi, 2010).

Figure 2: Apollo 9 Lift off

Source: http://www.apollomissionphotos.com/index_ap9_reissues.html

Apollo 10, (as-505)

This mission was undertaken during May 18-26, 1969. It was a dress rehearsal for the first manned moon landing and the first manned command service module operations in cislunar and lunar environments. The lunar module was taken at a distance of 15,243 meters from the lunar surface. This mission also characterized the first live coverage in color television. The preceding mission was broadcasted in black and white. The flight took 8 days and 3 minutes (Frasketi, 2010). "Charlie Brown" was the name given to the command module and "Snoopy" was the name given to the lunar module (Frasketi, 2010). The mission was also undertaken by three pilots headed by P. Stafford as the commander and two co pilots (W. Young and a. Cernan).

Apollo 11, (as-506)

The mission was launched in 1969 July 16-24. This mission characterized the setting up of the American flag and other instruments on the moon. A plaque was established on the lunar module descent stage with the inscriptions Here Men From Planet Earth First Set Foot Upon the Moon. July 1969 a.D. We Came in Peace for All Mankind (Frasketi, 2010).They stayed on the lunar surface for 21.6 hours and 59.5 hours in the lunar orbit. The lunar module ascent stage was left on the lunar space with 20 kilograms of lunar material gathered. The flight lasted 8 days 3 hours and 18 minutes (Frasketi, 2010). The command module was named "Columbia" and "Eagle" was the name given to the Lunar module (Frasketi, 2010). The Apollo 11 astronauts were 3, comprised of a commander and 2 module plots.

Apollo 12, (as-507)

The mission was carried out on November 14-24, 1969. The landing was done at Ocean of Storms. There were three retrieved parts of the unmanned surveyor which had previously landed on the moon during the month of April 1967. Apollo Lunar surface experiments were deployed in this mission with a lunar surface stay time of 31.5 hours. It also stayed in the lunar orbit for 89 hours. The lunar module impact stage impacted 75 pounds on the moon's surface of lunar material. The duration of the mission was 10 days 3 hours and 36 minutes (Frasketi, 2010). The name "Yankee Clipper" was given to the command module. "Intrepid" was the name given to the Lunar module. The mission had three astronauts comprised of a junior commander, module pilot and a lunar module pilot (Greene, 2010).

Apollo 13, (as-508)

This mission was carried out in April 1970.… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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