African-American Males Correlation Between Affective Disorders Substance Abuse and the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

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African-American Males - correlation between affective disorders, substance abuse and the criminal justice system

African-American Males: The Correlation between Affective Disorders,

Substance Abuse and the Criminal Justice System

The purpose of this work is to research and examine the correlation between affective disorders, substance abuse and the criminal justice system in the lives of African-American males. Further this work will discuss the models of Kimmel and Messner.

Within the theoretical framework of Kimmel and Messner's models one may find the African-American male and the links to behaviors correlating affective disorders, substance abuse and the criminal justice system.

Introduction

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According to Wade (1996, 2004): "The current dominant theoretical perspective on men and masculinity is that there are many masculinities." (Brod, 1987; Connell, 1997; Kimmel & Messner, 1992; and Segal, 1990 as cited by Wade, 1996, 2004) The meaning of masculinity and associated norms of gender roles are stated to be the basis of "social constructionism" (Kimmel & Messner, 1989, 1992) Men tend to internalize their conceptions of what forms their masculinity from the culture they live in. 'Socialization' encourages men to attempt to live up to those standards that have been set within the culture. African-American men are "subject to a very different set of influences" socially than their white peers and therefore have a different masculinity as well as their social influences being quite different than those of white men.

Background to the Problem

TOPIC: Term Paper on African-American Males Correlation Between Affective Disorders Substance Abuse and the Criminal Justice System Assignment

Wade (1996, 2004) cites racism as being that which has "particular psychological consequences for the masculine identity of African-American men" citing Cazenave, 1984, Clatterbaugh, 1990; majors & Billson, 1992; Segal, 1990; and Staples, 1978) Wade (1996, 2004) further states that "The black man's peer group is a kind of misogynist adaptation some African-American men have made to a racist American society. Norms include sexist attitudes, anti-femininity, aggressive solutions to disputes, antagonism toward other Black men, and contempt for non-material culture. The importance of this group increases with socioeconomic status. The more influence the peer group has, the less likely the larger society will play a role in defining male role norms. The subculture reference group is the African-American community." Within this subculture reference group the gender roles are minimized and men are geared toward roles that are not traditional as the one within societal norms.

Models of Kimmel & Messner

Kimmel and Messner have purported several different models that may be applicable to the African-American male in terms of masculinity development. The first of these is the developmental pathways model. The theoretical framework of this model is that the individual may be predisposed to engagement in behaviors that are negative due to family or social elements present in their lives. Within this framework that negative influence could be a parent, sibling or friends or even the neighborhood that the individual resides in. For instance a parent or older sibling using or selling illicit drugs could cause negative influence upon the individual who turns to the same behavior as an answer to poverty.

Much the same is the Social Development Model which holds that social and antisocial behaviors are learned through exposure to the same within the family, in peer relationships or the school environment. One example would be settling disputes through aggressive means such as fighting.

The third model of Kimmel & Messner is the Social Ecological Model which holds that the "immediate predictor of substance abuse among adolescents is association with antisocial peers and involvement in antisocial behavior."

The fourth model of Kimmel and Messner is that of Contextualism which states that all behavior can be understood within its context.

Poverty: A Factor that Cannot Be Ignored

Coulborn (2001) cites poverty to be a critical factor in the resulting associated problems of domestic violence, substance abuse and mental… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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African-American Males and the Correlation Between Affective Disorders Substance Abuse and the Criminal Justice System Term Paper


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https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/african-american-males-correlation/8665244.