African-American Parenting Styles According to Social Class Annotated Bibliography

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African-American Parents

Annotated Bibliography

Abar, B., K.L. Carter, and a. Winsler. "The effects of maternal parenting style and religious commitment on self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American parochial college students*." Journal of Adolescence. 32. (2009): 259-273.

In the Journal of Adolescence, the purpose of the study explored the relationships between religiosity, maternal parenting style, student academic self-discipline and risk behaviors among African-American youth attending a parochial college (Abar, Carter, and Winsler, 259). The research question of the study was how African-American youth who have had parenting from social classes above the poverty level and focus on the parenting and other skills had contributed to student success or failure that were influenced by religiosity and middle to upper class social status (there are possibly youth also who have come from poor backgrounds on scholarships).

Eighty-five students volunteered to complete self-report survey measures of religiosity, risk behavior and academic achievement. The students also completed youth report measures on their parents' religiosity and maternal parenting styles. In terms of characteristics, the analysis of the data shows that authoritative parenting was associated with high academic performance and also study skills. Additionally, highly religious students tended to perform well academically, had superior study habits and were involved in fewer risky than their secular counterparts. While there were no direct relations documented between parenting styles and student religiosity, maternal parenting styles moderated relations between student and parental religiosity (ibid., 264-267).

In terms of limitations, the current study that could be addressed in future research was on a small and homogeneous sample of African-American college students augurs for larger and more diverse youth study populations. For further research, data should be collected directly from parents about their religiosity and parenting style makeup (ibid., 270). These limitations need to be satisfied to further corroborate the results. In terms of the class presentation, the relationship between parenting skills and religiosity among black parents needs further attention. The behavior that particularly interested me was how religion related to Arfrican American parenting skills.

Sampson, R.J., P. Sharkey, and S.W. Raudenbush. "Durable effects of concentrated disadvantage on verbal ability among African-American children." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105.3 (2008): 845 -- 852.

In a study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, research was conducted with longitudinal evidence from a large-scale study of some 2,000 children aged 6 to 12 living in Chicago who were followed wherever they moved in the U.S. For up to 7 years. In the study, it was assumed that African- American children are exposed in such to concentrated disadvantage that white and Latino children cannot be reliably compared. The studies therefore focus upon trajectories of verbal ability among African-American neighborhood children. The stress of violence in the community may lead black parents to isolation out of fear which leads to restrictions in social networking and mutual exchanges that are the building blocks of language development, social support mechanisms and social skills in verbal encounters while growing up. The children's verbal abilities and growth potential are diminished by neighborhood disadvantages based upon the parental isolation. The results therefore indicate that living in disadvantaged neighborhoods reduce the verbal ability of black children on average 4 points, an amount that rivals the missing a year or more of schooling (Sampson, Sharkey, and Raudenbush 845 -- 847).

The results are particularly interesting because the factors of living in inner city neighborhoods is so dangerous that few researchers have considered the reasons a poor parent would keep their children inside and away from social stimuli. After all, even with poverty, many neighborhoods do have after school programs, clubs, etc. To provide stimuli for youth. In this study it is being implied that keeping children away from such influences is simply to protect them. This led the study authors to not just advocate studying in greater detail the effects of disadvantaged neighborhoods upon children, but how to make the neighborhoods better so the children can get out for more stimuli. (ibid., 852). The longitudinal nature of the study leads to its viability as well as studying the family neighborhood environment as a whole. The particularly interests this author to study how neighborhood influences affect the black family and parenting decisions and how to improve those neighborhood conditions. This will particularly highlight black parenting decisions in the class presentations.

Gosa, T.L., and K.L. Alexander. "Family (Dis)Advantage and the Educational Prospects of Better Off African-American Youth: How Race Still Matters." Family (Dis)Advantage and the Educational Prospects. 109.2 (2007): 285 -- 321.

In this article, the purpose is to investigate the widespread belief that black children from affluent families have more advantages are better parented that their poor counterparts. For this reason, the academic performance of affluent African-American children has received so much attention. Despite their economic advantages, these well-off African-American youth are still not achieving at the levels of white students. This study points to a number of social causes that pose some formidable barriers to academic and personal development of affluent middle-class African-American youth. These processes originate from the immediate home environment, are passed through peers and friends and into neighborhoods and schools to the society as a whole (Gosa, and Alexander 285). The behavior that is of interest to this author is why students from black homes seem to trail white students how parenting issues in the black home may have contributed to this. In terms of characteristics, the sample population were from affluent black homes.

The research hypothesis is supported by the data that black children in affluent situations with affluent parents have advantages, but much less than white households. While there is not complete certainty as to why this is the case, there is research that parental education, household composition, books at home, societal racism, etc. can be causes (ibid., 286-287). Unfortunately, much of the literature is very scattered as well as the scholarship (ibid., 310). For this reason, much of the study's research may not have complete validity without more systematic or quantitative study. The subject matter makes it difficult for the author's to call for the end to race neutral education and an emphasis upon attention to race in educational curricula. Without further and better research, this position is dubious at best. While this author would tend to sympathize with the article's conclusions, they need to be documented first. The material here will be pertinent in the class presentation because of the examination of the parenting skills in an affluent black family.

Sacco, L.M., M.E. Bentley, K. Carby-Shields, J.B. Borja, and B.D. Goldman. "Assessment of infant feeding styles among low income African-American mothers: comparing reported and observed behaviors." Appetite. 49.1 (2007): 131 -- 140.

Parental interaction with children begins at birth and the relationship between mother and child through the first year and a half is critical to understand. In a study in the journal Appetite, the purpose of the article was to examine the characteristics of five feeding styles that have been associated with obesity in African-American children. The research question was to see if African-American parenting styles had any impact upon a child's weight. The question of the relation of weight to parenting styles is particularly interesting to this writer. In terms of results, the findings pointed to important issues of feeding styles that might be overlooked if further research done to document how best to calculate the impact they may have on child weight long-term. The results from the study support continued focus on less controlling feeding styles and their potential contribution to obesity, and facilitating better study on the issue. In terms of the characteristics of the sample population under study, they were infants whose feeding styles offer potential targets for early prevention efforts against the future risk of obesity (Sacco, Bentley, Carby-Shields, Borja, and Goldman, 140).

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