Term Paper: African-American Women in New York

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[. . .] S. population but accounted for 39.7% of all cases (368,169 of 928,188) reported through 2003" (p. 1884).Through statistical research, Buchanan and Hatcher (2007) reported "during 2005, about1.1 million Americans were living with HIV; about half of the new HIV or AIDS diagnoses occurred among African-American individuals during 2004, whereas 18%occurred among Hispanic individuals and 30% among European-American individuals."(p. 2013)

Out of the women living in the United States, two out of three women living with HIV / AIDS during 2004 were African-American, with another 15% being Hispanic (Buchanan & Hatcher, 2007). "For African-American women, the result has been devastating, according to the founding president and CEO of the National Black Leadership Commission on AIDS" (Fears, 2005, p. A01). In 2003, the rate of new AIDS cases for African-American women was 20 times that of European-American women and five times greater than the infection rate for Latinos (CDC, 2007b). "African-American and Hispanic women accounted for 77% of all new AIDS infections in 1994; nine years later, the rate was 85%, according to the agency" (Fears, 2005, p. A01). According to Sutton. (2009):

"The highest rates of new infections occurred among African-American men and women, which are 115.7 and 55.7 per100000 population, respectively compared with men and women from all other racial/ethnic groups. Furthermore, the estimated lifetime risk of being diagnosed with HIV was higher for African-Americans than for European-Americans: 1 in 30 African-American females in the United States will be diagnosed with HIV, compared to 1 in 588 European-American females." (p. S351)

Barriers in Healthcare

The barriers in health and healthcare settings vary among the African-American women population. The most stated problem found when conducting this literature review was access to healthcare programs and treatment facilities. Research studies done by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2010) found that most women who are HIV positive live in poverty and were already poor when they learned their serostatus; the socioeconomic status of women negatively influences access to health care.del Rio (2003) stated that

"Challenges to improving access to care and keeping patients in care have been documented in a variety of studies. The difficulty of keeping patients in care, for example, is illustrated by a 1994 study showing that 27% of HIV infected patients delayed seeking medical care for more than 1 year and 12% for more than 2 years after initially testing as sero-positive. In addition, many patients in care are not on antiretroviral therapy, with 1 study indicating that women and injection drug users are less likely than other patients to be prescribed antiretroviral treatment; once prescribed antiretroviral treatment, most patients at urban clinics do not have the desired virologic response, with missed clinic appointments being the most important risk factor for virologic failure." (p. 142)

DeLoach (2003) used the phenomenological approach to conduct a qualitative research study of ethnic and racism of African-American women with HIV access to28healthcare treatment. DeLoach also used interviewing, observation and content analysis for the data collection and data analysis portion of the study. The study revealed that African-American women described salient experiences of being discriminated against on the basis of their HIV status when attempting to receive medical treatment (DeLoach,2003). Malebranche (2005) study found that

"African-Americans with HIV / AIDS are often diagnosed at more advanced stages of HIV, and utilize fewer outpatients and more inpatient care than their European-American counterparts, even when controlling for socioeconomic status and insurance. The lack utilizing primary care services is to be expected, as an emphasis on emergency medical treatment utilization instead of primary care services has long been a staple of healthcare access patterns in the African-American community. At first glance, it appears that the high rates of poverty, lack of insurance, poor access and inadequate transportation as the main culprits of this public health dilemma. Moreover, policy barriers such as Medicaid requirements for legal immigration status and residency and limits on Medicaid eligibility based on disability requirements also represent larger structural forces at work." (p. 3)

del Rio (2003) suggested that the in general prevention message for HIV infected patients is apparent and that is HIV infected individuals should practice safe sex and should adopt other risk prevention methods to save themselves and others from new infections, and they must stick to antiretroviral therapy both to benefit themselves and to prevent development of resistant virus that can be transmitted to others. HIV care settings provide a good location for risk assessment and prevention counselling, along with any additional work that is needed to develop the best strategies for delivering risk reduction counselling in healthcare environment. However, according to del Rio (2003):

"A number of basic recommendations can be made: (a) training in risk reduction counselling should be made more available to physicians and other health care workers, (b) more time should be allocated in the typical office/clinic visit to discuss prevention measures with patients, and (c) use of referrals and other strategies for providing prevention counselling to patients should be optimized in clinical practice." (p.143)

Stigma and Discrimination

It is an gradually more approved veracity today that all over the world individual who are most intensely affected by the HIV epidemic are also the most sternly deprived, whether on the basis of race, economic status, age, sexual orientation or gender. Bharat (2002) noted that

"As in the case of most other stigmatized health conditions such as tuberculosis, cholera and plague, fundamental structural inequalities, social prejudices and social exclusion explain why women, children, sexual minorities and people of color are disproportionately impacted by AIDS and the accompanying stigma and discrimination. The stigmatization of the African-American identity in relation to diseases in the early twentieth century shows a remarkable continuity today in the context of HIV / AIDS at the turn of the century." (p. 1)

Bharat (2002) also describe that stigma related to AIDS and discrimination is multifaceted social practice. They are neither exclusive and nor arbitrarily patterned. They generally are constructed upon and strengthen pre-existing doubts, chauvinisms and social disparities pertaining to poverty, gender, race, sex and sexuality, and so on. In this way, racist behaviors and racial inequity associated to HIV / AIDS status are only playing into, and reinforcing, previously active racial stereotypes and disparities about people of color in general. "There is a four part process of stigmatization on the part of a society: first, by identifying and defining the disease; second by assigning responsibility for its appearance to some person, group or thing; third, by determining whether those affected by the disease are to be viewed as innocent or guilty; and fourth, by assigning responsibility for identifying a cure or solution to another segment of society." (pp. 4-5)

The focus of this research report was African-American women, in New York. The United States carry on experiencing sturdy augments in the estimated numbers of persons living with HIV / AIDS and comparatively stable on the whole trends in HIV diagnoses. Lyles, Kay, Crepaz, Herbst, et al. (2007) revealed via research study that given the challenges of further reducing HIV infection rates and developing an effective vaccine, it is critical to focus on behavioural prevention efforts that are based on the best available scientific evidence. In a recent case study done by Miller et al. (2007)at the New York Medical College showed that in a situation of high backdrop HIV occurrence and low levels of HIV status revelation, sero-discordant mixing patterns probable make easy the transtmission.

For African-American women this disparity is amplified, as they account for 72% of all new female HIV / AIDS cases nationally and experience rates at 25 times greater than European-American women (Davis, Sloan, MacMaster & Kilbourne, 2007). An additional case study done by Collins, Whiters, and Braithwaite (2007) at the University of Georgia using a peer-led community treatment and prevention program illustrated that prevention models using peer educators still prove to be effectual intervention approaches, ceaselessly encouraging healthy attitudes, practices and lifestyles, leading to a decrease in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Jemmott, Jemmott and O'Leary (2007) used a qualitative study to discover that interventions are required in a wide range of venues so that the prople African-American women's risk of HIV in the primary health care setting are facing may be addressed; in this case nurses and other healthcare providers may particularly prove efficient agents of behaviour change:

"Because health care providers are generally unable to devote a great deal of time to primary prevention, brief single session interventions may be especially practical in primary health care settings. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of evidence on the efficacy of such interventions." (p. 1034)

Conclusion

This research report addressed the health issues among the African-American Women in the New York. Sutton et al. (2009) declared that challenges still remain in regards to properly dealing with factors that constantly add to the problems of HIV / AIDS health disparities in United… [END OF PREVIEW]

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