Air Pollution Term Paper

Pages: 40 (11091 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 3  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Transportation - Environmental Issues

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The natural protective layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere protects us from the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays, on the contrary man-made ground -level ozone is harmful to us and all living things inhibiting our planet.

Nitrogen Dioxide

Oxides of nitrogen include NO and NO2. These have lower reactivity than Ozone. Nitrogen dioxide dissolves in water in the airways to form nitric and nitrous acids, which damage the airway epithelial lining. Children and patients with asthma have increased susceptibility to nitrogen dioxide; there is a wide variation in individual responses to this pollutant.

Nature and Sources OF Nitrogen Dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide is a light brown gas that is an essential constituent of fog in cities. High-temperature burning processes; such as discharge by vehicles and power plants generally send out large amounts of nitrogen oxide (NOx) into the atmosphere.

Nitrogen dioxide impacts in a big way and causes atmospheric reactions that produce ozone. Gas stoves and heaters also disperse a sufficient aggregate of NO2.

Effects on Health

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Effects on Health of Nitrogen dioxide introduce irritation in lungs and decrease opposition to respiratory contagions like influenza. The cons of short-term exposure are not pretty elucidating, however, persistent or sporadic impinges from engrossments higher than those usually experienced in the surrounding air can lead to increased cases of intense respiratory disorder in adolescents. Nitrogen oxides are an essential prerequisite for ozone and acid rain as well. In few areas of the western countryside,

NOx) heavily and significantly contribute in the generation of particulate matter. Sulphur Dioxide

This pollutant is highly soluble in water; it is absorbed in the upper and lower airways, where it releases H+, HSO3- (bisulfate), and SO3- (sulfite), which cause local irritation.

Nature and Sources OF Sulphur Dioxide

Term Paper on Air Pollution the Air That Assignment

Sulphur dioxide belongs to the family of sulphur oxide gases. These gases are formed when fuel containing sulphur (mainly coal and oil) is burned, and during metal smelting and other industrial processes. Most SO2 monitoring stations are located in urban areas. The highest monitored concentrations of SO2 are recorded in the vicinity of large industrial facilities.

Effects on Health

The major health concerns associated with exposure to high concentrations of SO2 include effects on breathing, respiratory illness, alterations in the lungs' defenses, and aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease. Major subgroups of the population that are most sensitive to SO2 include asthmatics and individuals with cardiovascular disease or chronic lung disease, as well as children and the elderly. Acid Aerosols

Primary combustion products of fossil fuels are emitted by tall smoke stacks at high altitudes and are transported by air. In the atmosphere, sulphur and nitrogen dioxide are oxidized to sulphuric acid and nitric acid, respectively, which are dissolved into water droplets or absorbed to particulates. These acid aerosols are irritants to the airway epithelium and alter mucociliary clearance. Asthmatics have decreased lung function and increased hospitalizations when exposed to acid aerosols, although there is a wide variation in airway responses.

Particulates

The deposition and clearance of particulates inhaled into the lungs depend on their size. Ambient particulates are highly heterogeneous in size and in chemical composition. It is uncertain which characteristics of ambient particulates contribute to their adverse Effects on Health. According to some animal toxicology studies, ultra fine particulates (less than 0.05 ?m in aerodynamic diameter) are more hazardous. The mechanisms responsible for increased morbidity and mortality associated with exposure of sensitive populations to particulates are unknown; it is suspected that they may be related to free radical generation at the surface of fine particles.

Nature and Sources of Particulates

Particulate matter is the common name given to a kind of air pollution that is made up of intricate and different mixtures of particles hanging in the air that surrounds us. Such specks are available in any area of our atmosphere; however, notable engrossments and/or specific types of such particles can be or develop threatening impairment to human health.

Particulate matter is a mixture of subtle and variable solids like soil dust, dirt, pollens, ashes, molds and soot; and aerosols that appear and vitiate the atmosphere from gaseous combustion by-products such as volatile organic compounds, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

Some diverse sources of particulate pollution are factory and utility smokestacks, vehicle exhaust, wood burning, mining, construction and agriculture.

Effects on Health

Particles of special concern to the protection of lung health are those known as fine particles, less than 2.5 microns in diameter. (For comparison, a human hair is about 75 microns in diameter.) Fine particles are easily inhaled deeply into the lungs where they can be absorbed into the bloodstream or remain embedded for long duration. A recent study showed a 17% raise in mortality risk in areas with higher concentrations of small particles.

Particulate matter air pollution is especially harmful to people with lung disease such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Exposure to particulate air pollution can trigger asthma attacks and cause wheezing, coughing, and respiratory irritation in individuals with sensitive airways.

Recent research has also linked exposure to relatively low concentrations of particulate matter with premature death. Those at greatest risk are the elderly and those with pre-existing respiratory or heart disease.

Particulates: Fact Sheet

Particulate matter is the generic term used for a type of air pollution that consists of complex and varying mixtures of particles suspended in the air we breathe. Particles are present everywhere, but high concentrations and/or specific types of particles have been found to present a serious danger to human health.

Particulate matter is a combination of fine solids such as dirt, soil dust, pollens, molds, ashes, and soot; and aerosols that are formed in the atmosphere from gaseous combustion by-products such as volatile organic compounds, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Particulate pollution comes from such diverse sources as factory and utility smokestacks, vehicle exhaust, wood burning, mining, construction activity, and agriculture. Particles of special concern to the protection of lung health are those known as fine particles, less than 2.5 microns in diameter. (For comparison, a human hair is about 75 microns in diameter.) Fine particles are easily inhaled deeply into the lungs where they can be absorbed into the bloodstream or remain embedded for long periods of time. A recent study showed a 17% increase in mortality risk in areas with higher concentrations of small particles. Particulate matter air pollution is especially harmful to people with lung disease such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, as well as people with heart disease. Exposure to particulate air pollution can initiate asthma attacks and cause wheezing, coughing, and respiratory irritation in individuals with sensitive airways. Exposure to relatively low concentrations of particulate matter may cause premature death according to a recent research. Those at greatest risk are the elderly and those with pre-existing respiratory or heart disease. Air Toxics

Nature and Sources of Air Toxics

Besides the six pollutants for which air quality has been standardized, toxic air pollution is a mixture of those ingredients which are notorious and conceited to cause cancer, genetic mutation, birth defects or other serious illnesses in human beings even at relatively low exposure levels.

Such toxic, cancer-causing ingredients in the air are directly breathed or taken in the form of fine particles into the lungs. Thousands of tons of these toxic and dangerous pollutants are dispersed into the atmosphere throughout the country, by motor vehicles and by both large and small industry, every year.

Such toxic contaminants' exposure should be regulated nationally by air quality standards rather than requiring the use of pollution controls on these sources.

Outdoor Air Pollution: Fact Sheet

It is due to Air pollution mainly that lung disease, including respiratory tract infections, asthma, and lung cancer take place. Each subsequent year more than 3, 30,000

Americans die because of Lung disease and it is the third biggest cause of death in our country. Through the last decade or so, the death rate for lung disease has shockingly increased than any other of the five major contributors of death.

Ozone (O3) is a kind of Oxygen and is an extremely reactive gas, and reacts chiefly from the radiation of sun on hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides which are discharged through fuel combustion. Breathing and living around unhealthful levels of ozone can significantly mare the proper working of our lungs, swelling of the lung lining and respiratory inconvenience, and is connected to hospitalization of patient and also visiting emergency rooms for respiratory dysfunction. Air pollution is also made up of Particulate mattes (PM), a mixture of complex and different substances that consists of carbon form contents, dust, and acid aerosols and these particulates give rise to untimely deaths. Particulate matter air pollution is significantly hazardous to folks with lung disease such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which involves chronic bronchitis and emphysema, and also to patients with heart disease. Subjection to particulate air pollution can… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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