Term Paper: Airport Security Design

Pages: 18 (4664 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 12  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Transportation  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] The section on the aircraft movement area should provide a description of any area that may be potentially used for landing, take-off and surface maneuvering of aircraft. This includes all intermediate unpaved sections of the airfield on the airport property. A map or diagram should be attached. This section should provide a description for perimeter barriers or access controls including: Fencing; Gates; Access control systems; AAF locks; and Key Control Systems. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006)

Airport Security Features

In addition, a necessary section of the Airport Security Plan is the section, which describes any airport/AAF Security Procedures including: (1) aircraft security requirements; (2) pedestrian/vehicle access; (3) challenge procedures; and (4) procedures for reporting suspicious behavior. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006) The Airport Security Plan should include an Airport/AAF Emergency Grid Map that identifies all areas of the Airport/AAF on a grid map. Areas to be identified include those as follows: Runways; Ramp areas; Fence line; Gates; Automobile parking areas; Hydrants; Emergency Shelters; Buildings; and Hazardous materials sites. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006) The emergency grid map should be provided to emergency response personnel and law enforcement in addition to Airport/AAF personnel. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006) There should also be a section that provides for the description of personnel identification methods or systems and the procedures that are currently being used including: Airport/AAF-issued identification badge(s) or card(s). Identification Badge / Card application procedures . Other acceptable forms of identification, Accountability of lost/stolen identification badges / cards. Temporary Airport/AAF identification badges / cards. Amd Uniforms which display logo or other identifiable markings (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006) The methods and systems used for identification of authorized vehicles in the operations area of the airport is necessary. Methods for identification of authorized vehicles include special paint schemes or markings such as placement of a decal on a specific location on the vehicle or hang tags. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006, paraphrased) The Airport Security Plan should also contain a section that describes any agreement and responsibilities that the Airport / AAF owner/operator has with law enforcement agencies for the provision of "support, traffic control, police patrols and any emergency responses." (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006) Included should be: (1) any written agreements (should be attached to the AAF Security Procedures); and (2) any methods of systems used (radios, communication channels) to directly communicate with law enforcement personnel. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006)

Procedures for Special Events

A section should also state the procedures for special events, which might include such as: Air shows; VIP visits; and Events that result in unusual numbers of people on the AAF. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006) The Airport Security Plan should also contain the methods used to implement security measures "in accordance with the raising and lowering of the Homeland Security Advisory System and should contain a section that identifies and describes all contingency plans and procedures for incidents such as: Bomb Threats (Bomb Threat Checklist is provided as an example)' Civil Disturbances & Crowd Control; Air Piracy (Hijacking) Actual or Attempted; and suspicious/Unidentified Items (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006) It is reported by the Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures that the TSA "…administers Transportation Security Regulations (TSRs), which are codified in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Chapter XII, parts 1500 through 1699. Many TSRs are former rules of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) that were transferred to TSA when TSA assumed FAA's civil aviation security function on February 17, 2002." (2006)

Regulations of the Department of Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures

The following are the regulations stated by the Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures:

49 CFR Part 1540 Civil Aviation Security: General Rules - This part contains rules that cover all segments of civil aviation security. It contains definitions that apply to Subchapter C, and it contains rules that apply to passengers, aviation employees, and other individuals and persons related to civil aviation security, including airport operators, aircraft operators, and foreign air carriers. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006);

49 CFR Part 1542 Airport Security - This Part requires airport operators to adopt and carry out a security program approved by TSA. It describes requirements for security programs, including establishing secured areas, air operations areas, security identification display areas, and access control systems. This Part also contains requirements for fingerprint-based criminal history record checks of specified individuals. This part describes the requirements related to Security Directives issued to airport operators. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006);

49 CFR Part 1544 Aircraft Operator Security: Air Carriers and Commercial Operators - This Part applies to certain aircraft operators holding operating certificates for scheduled passenger operations, public charter passenger operations, private charter passenger operations, and other aircraft operators. This Part requires such operators to adopt and carry out a security program approved by TSA. It contains requirements for screening of passengers and property. This Part also describes requirements applicable to law enforcement officers flying armed aboard an aircraft, as well as requirements for fingerprint-based criminal history record checks of specified individuals. This Part describes the requirements related to Security Directives issued to aircraft operators. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006);

49 CFR Part 1550 Aircraft Security under General Operating and Flight Rules - This part applies to the operation of aircraft for which there are no security requirements in other Parts of Chapter XII, including general aviation aircraft. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006); DOI Departmental Manual located at: http://elips.doi.gov/app_DM/index.cf ?fuseaction=home; and Part 352: AVIATION SAFETY Chapter 10: AIRCRAFT AND AVIATION FACILITY SECURITY (03/04/05) Part 444: PHYSICAL PROTECTION AND BUILDING SECURITY (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006) Issues to consider when conducting a vulnerability assessment include the following specific issues: Surrounding terrain and adjacent structures; Site layouts and elements, including perimeter and parking; Location and access to incoming utilities; Circulation patterns and spatial arrangements; Location of high risk assets within a facility; Mail-handling protocols and procedures; Access controls for service and maintenance personnel; Information technology (IT) controls; and Blast resistance and HVAC Protection. (Transportation Security Administration, 2006)

The likelihood of occurrence of vulnerabilities should be considered and designated in the following categories: Frequent -- event will occur; Probable -- expect event to occur; Occasional -- circumstances expected for that event which may or may not occur; Remote -- Possible but unlikely; Improbable -- event will not occur. (Transportation Security Administration, 2006) Critical Assets include such as: Stations; Shops; Headquarters building; Tunnels; Bridges; Trackwork vehicles; Command and control systems; Critical Personnel; Passenger's information systems. (Transportation Security Administration, 2006) Threats included are the following: (1) Explosives; (2) Incendiary materials; (3) Chemical agents; (4) Biological agents; (5) Radiological agents; (6) Nuclear agents; (7) Ballistic attacks; (8) Cyber attacks; and (9) Insider threat/sabotage. (Transportation Security Administration, 2006) Effective assessment includes five elements, which are stated to include: (1) asset analysis; (2) target or threat identification; (3) vulnerability assessment; (4) consequence analysis (scenarios); and (5) countermeasure recommendation. (Transportation Security Administration, 2004) The report contained herein has set out the basic requirements for airport security plan design and implementation. The actual requirements for airport security program design and implementation are much more detailed and are not able to be included fully in the present study due to its brevity. Further information is available for airport security program design and implementation and should be included in the actual airport security design initiative.

Fencing -- Perimeter Security

Fencing is reported to be the typical means of securing the airport perimeter. Fencing is variously designed and differs in height as well as differing in type which is dependent upon the security needs of the locale. Various barriers can increase the fence functionality include chain link topped with barbed wire. It is stated that it is important that airport personnel and users "be educated in the use of a "challenge" system. A challenge system involves airport employees and users confronting unknown personnel on the airport to determine whether or not they have a valid reason for being on airport property." (Transportation Security Administration, 2006) Included in such systems are "…stopping and questioning or even simply greeting the unknown individual and engaging in conversation to determine their purpose for being in a restricted area." (Transportation Security Administration, 2004)

The physical security barrier provided by a fence serves the following functions: (1) provides notice of the "legal boundary of the outermost limits of a facility or security sensitive area; (2) Assists in controlling and screening authorized entries into a secured area by deterring entry elsewhere along the boundary; (3) Supports surveillance, detection, assessment, and other security functions by providing a zone for installing intrusion detection equipment and closed-circuit television (CCTV);… [END OF PREVIEW]

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