Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky Term Paper

Pages: 13 (4729 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 14  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Women's Issues - Sexuality

In addition, the participants who were under the influence of alcohol exhibited much poorer negotiation skills regarding condom use, meaning that they were far easier to persuade to not use protections. Alcohol also made the participants far more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, and it may even be extrapolated that the influence of alcohol made the males intent to participate in risky sexual behavior. This study certainly backed up previous research showing that alcohol consumption is related to risky sexual behavior. Approximately 20-25% of the variance among males was related to personal attitude, and used in conjunction with level of alcohol consumption, this can be used to develop a surprisingly accurate prediction of risky sexual behavior. There is also evidence from this study that supports theories that perceived alcohol consumption has a significant effect on confidence and sexual behavior decisions, in addition to actual alcohol consumption.Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Term Paper on Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky Assignment

Sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies, and emotional regrets are not the only dangers involved when alcohol affects the risky sexual behavior choices of an individual. Alcohol is often a factor involved in sexual victimization and sexual assault. In the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, the article "The nature and predictors of sexual victimization and offending among adolescents" (Maxwell et all 2003) describes the risk factors which are associated with sexual aggression among adolescents. Among the high school students surveyed, almost half of the females responded that they had been sexually assaulted in some way. Additionally, a full third of male high school students admitted to committing acts of sexual aggression. The results of this study were intended to help improve sexual assault educational programs that would deal with sexual assault, date rape, and intimate partner violence. These problems extend to the college years, as well as through adulthood, so dealing with them during the adolescent years is vital to prevention. Alcohol has been shown to increase the chance of sexual victimization and offending, especially among adolescent acquaintances. Females who frequently become intoxicated are more likely to become the victim of sexual assault of some kind. The consumption of alcohol by both the victim and offender has also been shown to increase the severity of the assault. Thirty percent of all rapes and sexual assaults are attributed to offenders who are under the influence of alcohol. The consumption of alcohol also increases the chances of any kind of partner abuse, such as physical violence with a dating partner. This particular study found that "about 3 in 10 students reported having sex while they or their partners were 'very drunk, very stoned, or unconscious.' " (Maxwell et all 2003)

The social phenomenon of drinking games are also heavily responsible for risky sexual behaviors, including sexual aggression. The Journal of General Psychology article "Sexual experiences associated with participation in drinking games" (Johnson & Stahl 2004) reports that both men and women report being taken advantage of sexually during or after drinking games. One of the most common risky sexual behaviors is having sex with someone while too drunk to give consent, or having sex with another person who is too drunk to give consent. Very few females report being the perpetrator of such acts, but being the perpetrator of this act of sexual aggression is reported often by men who have participated in drinking games. The more alcohol that is consumed during drinking games, the higher the chance that risky sexual encounters will take place, and more alcohol correlates with more sexual encounters total. By analyzing the motivation of the males that play drinking games, it is relatively easy to determine the likelihood of the individual becoming a perpetrator of sexual aggression. When considering the relationship between alcohol and high-risk sexual activities and encounters, one must remember to address social activities like drinking games which are often overlooked in treatments and interventions. This needs to be a particular area when dealing with sexual victimization prevention and counseling. "A variety of sexual behaviors, from kissing to intercourse, occur during or after drinking games. Some such behaviors may be considered sexual harassment... whereas others are more clearly acquaintance rape... Some men may view drinking games as a way to target others for sex, and many men who admit to having been perpetrators report multiple instances of such perpetration." (Johnson & Stahl 2004)

Some percentage of unwanted or risky sexual occurrences happen because one or both sexual partners are unable to communicate due to the influence of alcohol. An article in the Western Journal of Communication, "Resistance, persistence, and drinking: examining goals of women's refusals of unwanted sexual advances" (Lannutti & Monahan 2004) discusses the results of a study on the communication barriers caused by alcohol that lead to risky behavior. Many studies have shown that alcohol consummation is a positive predictor of sexual assault, whether consumed by the victim or perpetrator of the crime. In addition to cases of blatant harassment, assault, or rape, alcohol is identified as a risk factor for sexual encounters becoming more intimate than the woman involved had planned, due to the misunderstandings and mistakes that occur when under the influence. Women under the influence of alcohol have reported being less aware of the threat that a date would use force to rape her, because her sense of danger or threat cues was dampened. Studies have also shown that an intoxicated woman will perceive a dangerous man as less dangerous than she would if sober, and the threat of sexual violence appears less severe in both men and women when under the influence of alcohol. A woman's ability to send proper refusal messages to an undesired advancing sexual partner is negatively impacted when affected by alcohol. When on a date, a woman may attempt to convey a refusal message that does not alienate, offend, or misrepresent, and attempts to create a socially "appropriate" message may be particularly ineffective when abilities are dampened by alcohol. "We theorized that women refusing an unwanted advance would attempt to accomplish a primary goal of clearly refusing the request while also addressing secondary goals of protecting self-image, the requester's image, and the relationship. Our self-report manipulation check confirmed that these goals were on women's minds while refusing. Type of request did influence the degree to which the goals were addressed." (Lannutti & Monahan 2004) The conclusion of the study was that alcohol most likely has the greatest influence on sexual resistance to unwanted sexual advances during the perception phase, when the victim would normally be able to detect a danger or threat if sober rather than intoxicated.

Drinking rates and sexual assault were found to be directly correlated especially on college campuses by studies discussed in the Campus Crime article "High-risk drinking and sexual assault go hand-in-hand" (Business Publishers 2004) and the America's Intelligence Wire report "Louisiana State U: Alcohol, sex crimes linked by study" (Yust 2004.) Recommendations are given that universities and colleges combat high rates of sexual assault and risky sexual activity by specifically targeting high-risk drinking on campus. Statistical reports included in this study show that the vast majority of rapes on campus involve the use of alcohol by the victim, perpetrator, or both. While the blame for the crime should never be placed on the victim, girls need to be educated about the fact that drinking will increase their chances of being sexually assaulted. This particular study, however, has been received with some amount of criticism for the focus it places on preventing rape-encouraging behavior among potential victims rather than working on preventing potential rapists from actually committing a crime. Some experts recommend that men simply avoid having sexual contact with a female who is under the influence of drugs or alcohol, or otherwise intoxicated or inebriated in any way, to ensure that no sexual misconduct occurs.

Sexual assault is a serious consequence of alcohol influence on sexual encounters, however even fully consensual sexual encounters pose a serious risk to those affected by alcohol. The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report published an article regarding the dangers of sexually transmitted diseases. "Alcohol Policy and Sexually Transmitted Disease Rates" (2000) evaluated the higher risk of adolescents and young adults in particular in regards to the acquisition and spread of sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs. Alcohol has been positively linked to the increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases from sexual activity for a number of reasons, including that a person under the influence of alcohol is less likely to abstain from sex. The influence of alcohol makes an individual more likely to participate in repeated sexual encounters and less likely to limit those encounters to a single sexual partner. Additionally, the influence of alcohol makes an individual less likely to insist on the use of protection during sexual activity, and when protection such as condoms are used during the encounter, being in an intoxicated state makes accidental misuse or improper application of protection methods far more likely. All of these factors significantly increase the likelihood that sexually transmitted diseases will be exchanged during sexual activity. Actions… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky" Term Paper in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky.  (2005, April 24).  Retrieved September 19, 2020, from

MLA Format

"Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky."  24 April 2005.  Web.  19 September 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky."  April 24, 2005.  Accessed September 19, 2020.