Alexander Set Radical Multiculturalism Holds Book Report

Pages: 4 (1485 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 4  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: Sociology

This bourgeois public sphere formed a new trend called "public opinion" and flourished within early free market economies. At the head of this change was the rise of a literary sphere that allowed the bourgeois public sphere to critically look at politics, art, itself and its position/function in society and the interaction between intellectuals, aristocrats, and citizens in public places. Eventually though mass consumerism there was transformation of society; industrialism led to the rise of consumerism and the bourgeois public sphere was marked by a series of re-defining of the relationship between the state and society. This eventually looks to be headed toward a welfare state with the role of the state and society totally redefined.

Habermas set 2

1. The dominant mode of thought that influences intellectual and cultural thinking in a particular period. The modern zeitgeist is the devaluation of important passive violence and the need to extract principles from one's own current experience and not rely on the past the point the way to the future.

2. There is a clash of competing ideas: historical thought (actual experience) and utopian thought (opens up new alternatives that push beyond historical thinking).Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Book Report on Alexander Set Radical Multiculturalism Holds Assignment

3. In the first section in the focus is on the new zeitgeist and affirmation of utopian thought; section 2 focuses on the breakdown of utopian thinking; section 3 focuses on the description of how the welfare state has come to exist and countered utopian thinking; section 4 focuses on describing the reactions to the failure of utopian thinking and the propagation of the welfare state; section 5 offers his assessment and compromise which is wordy and confused. Some of these conclusions seem almost contradictory. For instance, the idea that the disenfranchised groups are supporting the welfare state and not actually expressing a modern class struggle seems wrong to this reader; labor has been actually replaced by information technology. The real working class now is not unskilled laborers but skilled technicians and the real tool is education, which is a function of communication. Much of his logic is circular. Perhaps what is occurred is that "utopian thinking" has evolved into something else.

4. Those that legitimize the welfare state selectively obstruct the components that it took from utopian ideals (the stands fails to look at the shifts in social and labor and resistance to the welfare state); the rise of neoconservatism (however this just reignites class struggles and class conflict); and the protests of disenfranchised groups over the productive this visions of the other two groups and advocate for more state control (however they do not go beyond mere dissonance).

5. The focus of the article is to explain why the utopian state has not surfaced as conceptualized by classic thinkers such as Marx and how the welfare state has replaced or supplemented utopian thought. How the development of the welfare state came about instead and how this is in a sense consistent with utopian thinking, reactions to the welfare state, and his potential compromises.

6. What he is really advocating is the rise of the "third level" or the labor force. This includes those getting welfare and labor the tool for this is communication, which is the same tool that was used for the rise of the bourgeois public sphere. This reader doesn't see him advocating anything different than what he advocated previously.


Habermas describes the modern take on a class struggle; the updated version of a Marxist vision. The welfare state developed out of a restructuring of class struggles, technology, and shifting political ideologies and objectives. The utopian thought that was once the ideal has been replaced by a type of entitlement thought for lack of a better expression. Habermas seeks to explain and at the same time criticize the changes in democracy and capitalistic economies and offer his take as to how the public sphere can regain control of the society with conflicting goals (capitalism, welfare, power struggles, and entitlements). The zeitgeist has led to utopian expectations assuming more of a religious nature as opposed to secular form. His reaction is that what is really happened is that a utopia based on social labor is no longer relevant due to the survival of Western welfare state democracies. The… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Alexander Set Radical Multiculturalism Holds" Book Report in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Alexander Set Radical Multiculturalism Holds.  (2012, December 23).  Retrieved September 23, 2020, from

MLA Format

"Alexander Set Radical Multiculturalism Holds."  23 December 2012.  Web.  23 September 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"Alexander Set Radical Multiculturalism Holds."  December 23, 2012.  Accessed September 23, 2020.