Research Paper: Ancient History of Yemen

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[. . .] In the south it is important to remember that the League did not always have influence but it tried to do so without ceasing, frequently depending upon its own internal evolutionary strife and who its power brokers were at any given time.

Intermittent clashes took place along the frontier in 1954. The leader of the north (San'a) signed a tripartite military alliance with Saudi Arabia and Egypt on 24 April 1956 (Jidda Pact) and, in 1958, federated with the United Arab Republic (the federation was called the United Arab States). These arrangements were dissolved in 1961. San'a also claimed South Yemen (Aden). When the treaty was broken, a long period of Egyptian-supported subversion began in San'a. [as a direct result of Arab League influence by the Egyptians] The San'a leader, Ahmed (qv) (Imam Seif al-Islam Ahmad), [backed by the Arab League] who took power in 1948, died in 1962 and was replaced by his son, Crown Prince Mohammed al-Badr (qv). Nine days later (27 September), a revolution began in which imam Mohammed was killed in the shelling of his palace. A trusted aide, who had led the revolt, Abdullah al-Sallal, took power and proclaimed the Yemen Arab Republic (YAR). It soon became apparent that Egyptian influence was behind the coup and the construction of the new Yemeni government. [again as a result of the Egyptian influence over the Arab League] Communist states flocked to recognize the YAR, and later the U.S. joined in granting recogition. Royalist forces that reached the mountains joined with the local tribesmen, and civil war ensued. On 28 March 1964, in retaliation for an attack on Saudi Arabian positions in South Yemen, British aircraft attacked and destroyed a North Yemeni fortification. By 1965, a procommunist government had been installed in North Yemen. Over 60,000 Egyptian troops were reported in the country. On 24 August 1965, a cease-fire was arranged between all of the warring factions.[in part as a result of Arab League intervention] This was the third such arrangement in two years. During June 1967, Egypt began withdrawing substantial numbers of its troops deployed in North Yemen. On 24 August 1967, Egypt and Saudi Arabia agreed to stop the fighting in Yemen. Also, in 1967, South Yemen, formed out of Aden and the protectorate, won its independence from Great Britain.

To be fair, it is important again here to remind the reader of the fact that for all intents and purposes and for a significant portion of the history of Yemen, Yemen has been divided into two nations, sometimes called Yemen and other times going by monikers that reflect the affiliation of the nation and its leaders. One very important factor that the two nations have in common and have, since its inception is the League of nations and its overarching desire to see the two nations reunited and stable, politically and economically, for many reasons, some political and some cultural.

Meanwhile, back in North Yemen, a bloodless coup took place on 5 November 1967. Peace talks, [conducted by the League] which began on 12 January 1968, broke down on 19 January. Fighting continued in North Yemen between republican and royalist forces. On 6 September 1969, republican forces captured the last royalist stronghold at Sa'dah. In November 1969, a series of border clashes occurred near the Al Wadeiah oasis on the North Yemen-Saudi Arabian border. In December, Saudi Arabia resumed its military support to the royalist forces in North Yemen. On 13-14 January 1970, republican forces attacked the Saudi border town of Nahuga. Saudi forces immediately retaliated by attacking a rebel-held border post. A peace treaty was signed in North Yemen in April 1970. North and South Yemen signed a peace agreement that also pledged reunification within one year on 28 October 1972. [again as a result of Arab League involvement] Also in 1972 the South Yemen, the only Marxist government in the Arab world, took the name People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and continued its conflict with neighboring Oman, while North Yemen turned toward Saudi Arabia and the West for support. On 13 June 1974, a military coup took place in North Yemen that placed Colonel Ibrahim al-Hamidi (qv) in power. He was assassinated in 1977. In 1979, South Yemen signed a 20-year friendship treaty with the U.S.S.R. that allowed Soviet troops to be stationed on its territory. Since 1967, more than 300,000 South Yemenites had fled into North Yemen. Numerous border clashes between north and south occurred during the period before an Arab League-sponsored agreement aiming toward unification was signed by the two countries on 29 March 1979.

From this point forward, as the literature points out, and though it took almost twenty years to be realized in any real significant way, the Arab League had been successful in creating a dialogue of unification, that eventually led to de facto unification in the nation. Without the influence of this organization, the nation would probably today be divided still. The varied political interests, Arab and western continued throughout Yemeni history to divide and conquer the two Yemen's over and over again and the influence of the League, at times itself even divided by individual state interests, remained constant in its struggle to unite Yemen and make it an active and stable nation. Even today the organization continues to do so.

The concept of unification was thereafter discussed, even though South Yemen continued support of North Yemeni rebels (1982) and sporadic fighting continued, along the common border between North Yemen and rebel forces. In 1984, South Yemen recognized Oman for the first time in 20 years and began the task of reestablishing its relations with Great Britain, its former colonial master. North Yemen's border with Saudi Arabia became the site of a border clash when Yemeni border forces attempted to set up two customs checkpoints on what Saudi Arabia claimed as its territory. A very violent coup (estimated casualties as high as 10,000) overthrew the government of South Yemen's president, Ali Nasir Muhammad Husani, on 24 January 1986. Muhammad fled to Egypt, and a new Yemen Socialist Party government was put in place....In the worst clash since 1975, South Yemen and Omani forces fought a pitched battle along their common border on 11 October 1987. Eight Yemeni troops were killed, and only diplomatic intervention helped prevent a full-scale confrontation, In December of that year, former president Muhammad Husani was tried in absentia and sentenced to death. South Yemen restored diplomatic relations with Egypt in 1988. The two countries formally united on 21 May 1990.

The internal and external strife, regarding unification as well as varied and diverse political partnerships and positions and internal fundamental historical and faith organization conflict delayed the realization of the 1990 unification for another four years, and real political change, reflected in a parliamentary election did not occur until 1997.

When Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990, Yemen's stand was pro-Iraqi, and it voted against the UN order for Iraq to withdraw.[while the Arab League partnered with the UN] Already in 1991, the effects of Yemen's position on Iraq began to be felt economically and in other ways. For instance, nearly one million Yemenis were forced to leave Saudi Arabia with an approximate loss of about $7 billion in wages. The U.S. cut more than $20 million in aid. Only the PLO showed support for Yemen during this period. A period of internal violence followed (1992), which forced Yemen to postpone scheduled elections. Bombings and other attacks on leading politicians began in April 1992 by terrorists assumed to be backed by northern extremist groups. When Yemen accused Saudi Arabia of involvement in the affair, the Saudis revoked over three-quarters of a million Yemeni work permits and cut all aid and assistance to Yemen. Thirteen were killed in the ensuing rioting in Yemen (December 1992). Yemen did, however, reach a border demarcation agreement with Oman in October. [at the urging of the league]The situation became even more weird when the Yemeni vice president indicated (August 1993) that he was informed in the U.S. Of a threat on his life if he attended certain meetings in San'a. The prime minister supported him and demanded better security and a removal of the conditions causing the violence. By that point, nearly 150 Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP) members had been murdered.

Sadly it would take yet another bloody civil war to create a situation that was amiable for the development of any form of representative government, in the form of parliamentary elections in 1997.

By 5 May 1994, a civil war had broken out between the north and the south. On 21 May, the YSP with support from the Sons of Yemen League declared a secessionist state. Heavy fighting continued. The UN denounced the north (1 June), while the south was supplied with sophisticated ex-Soviet fighters by Moldava. By mid-July, the north had all but won the war and a reconciliation plan was adopted to restore the country. While YSP members were being replaced in… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Ancient History of Yemen.  (2007, August 2).  Retrieved June 17, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/ancient-history-yemen/153459

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"Ancient History of Yemen."  2 August 2007.  Web.  17 June 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/ancient-history-yemen/153459>.

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"Ancient History of Yemen."  Essaytown.com.  August 2, 2007.  Accessed June 17, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/ancient-history-yemen/153459.