Annotated Bibliography: Annotated Bibliography About the Health Care System in European Countries and Asian

Pages: 5 (1413 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 8  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Criminal Justice  ·  Buy This Paper

Aizenman, N.C. "The high cost of incarceration." The Washington Post (2008). Print. Points out the issues for the state government with regards to the costs of incarceration. The authos states facts with numbers in relation to this issue, and analyzes the data found. The author claims that incarceration is not worth all its costs, and the governemtn is spending too much on this. One of his findings point out the number of American teens who are currently incarcerated within the criminal justice system, and he provides data and statistics of how many people are imprisoned this year, and a summary of their costs. He deals with findings which he obtains through reports from sources such as The Pew Center, and gathers very recent information regarding incarcertaion. Along with this data, he includes very specific numbers and statistics, pointing out what race, gender and age brackets contribute to those who are currently incarcerated in the criminal justice system. The author also compares the data he finds with data of the incarcerated in other countries and compares them with the United States. He finds that the United States is the leading country with the greatest percentage of incarcerated. He also claims that taxpayers are suffering due to this. The author's credibility is that he is a writer for The Washington Post, specializing in legal articles, mostly criminology.

Donohue, John and Justin Wolfers. "Does the Death Penalty Deter?" Wilson Quarterly 30.2 (2006). Print. The article is about a debate on whether the United States should retain capital punishment, and the question of the study is whether capital punishment deters murder or not. It is argued that capital punishment may desensitize society. Date was analyzed by the researchers and they found that capital punishment does not have a deterrent effect. The authors write about the death penalty, and if it is an effective means of deterring murder or homicides. It is found in their study that the death penalty does not do this, and it increases the chances of actually brutalizing society. The authors tested these findings and compared them with original studies which covered a different time period. These included comparison groups, using alternative analytical techniques and also changing the variables. Their difficulty in the study occurred because executions happen very rarely in the United States, and there was not enough data on the subject. This makes it hard to come to accurate conclusions regarding the issue. Also, the large changes in rates which occur year to year in homicides make the study difficult to conduct since there are constantly changing variables. The credibility of the authors are that they are researchers/business professors from Yale University.

Gertner, Nancy. "Confronting the Costs of Incarceration: Supporting Advisory Guidelines." Harvard Law & Policy Review 3.2 (2009). Print. This article states that advisory sentencing guidelines may come off as unrelated to the issue of concern which is that the failed experiment of mass incarceration. However, there is infact a link with the concerned topic and the costs of incarceration, as the author finds. There are a lot of mandatory minimums in sentencing as applied by state laws and statues. Though, the number of incarcerated has greatly increased since the 1980s. This has been said to be fueled by the governments' need to put on harsher sentencings to law violaters. This has largely contributed to the costs being spent on the criminal justice system, which taxpayers have to shell-out money for. It is because of the renewed Federal Sentence Guidelines that have placed political pressure on creating a more rational punishment system, in turn placing more people in jail, increasing the costs of incarceration along with it. The Federal Guidelines were said to be built on top of two purposes of sentencing -- retribution and incapacitating. The author of this study is very credible because she is a judge in the criminal justice system. Therefore, she has the experiences needed to be able to determine the problems which are ongoing within the system. She has had enough time around people who work for the system and within the system to be able to point out what is lacking, and what can be fixed.

Nagin, Daniel S. "Thoughts On The Broader Implications Of The 'Miracle… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Annotated Bibliography About the Health Care System in European Countries and Asian.  (2010, October 20).  Retrieved July 22, 2019, from

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"Annotated Bibliography About the Health Care System in European Countries and Asian."  20 October 2010.  Web.  22 July 2019. <>.

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"Annotated Bibliography About the Health Care System in European Countries and Asian."  October 20, 2010.  Accessed July 22, 2019.