Term Paper: Application of Human Rights on Artificial Intelligence

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¶ … Technological Changes & Advancements Affect the Law

by altering the cost of violating and enforcing existing legal rules; (2) by altering the underlying facts that justify legal rules; and (3) by changing the underlying facts implicitly assumed by the law, making existing legal concepts and categories obsolete, even meaningless. The legal system can choose to ignore such changes. Alternatively, it may selectively alter its rules legislatively or via judicial interpretation.

David Friedman in Does Technology Require New Law?

Artificial Intelligence is one of the most controversial and interesting topics in the modern human repituar and within the issue are countless social, emotional, and legal discussions. As artificial intelligence becomes more and more like human intelligence, capable of creating lasting relationships, expressing human emotion and developing influence on social phenomena the controversies about the AIs "existence" as "living" beings becomes far greater. Many are likely to believe that these issues are not currently pressing as a machine is a machine, no matter how much it looks like or acts like a living being and technology may mirror this limited concern as it has yet to create AI that is systematically reflective of the human condition. Yet, technological forays into AI are and will continue to become much more life-like, which will likely create lasting questions and debated answers regarding how laws should be altered to include or exclude AI in the collection of rights most humans consider innate aspects of being. Yet, this becomes the enduring question of extending rights to artificial intelligence, what exactly is "being?" Does "being" or "living" require an exchange of oxygen, fluids, electricity or other elements to characterize it as living or does it allow an exchange of different elements to represent life? Is consciousness the designation of life? It would not seem so given recent debates regarding medical decisions made about people in persistent vegetative states, or other syndromes like it where the medical community is fairly certain the traditional consciousness is not present. www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002137129" (Cranford 27) the questions regarding AI and what constitutes a demarcation of "life" are actually rather complicated and for all intents and purposes theoretical, as AI is a development of human technology, and therefore subject to human debate and theory, not that other life forms are not subject to human superior debate but AI is tailor made to be discussed and debated as a wholly human creation.

This work will discuss the current debate on AI, offer a brief illumination of the state of AI technology and discuss questions regarding what the future may hold for Ai and the need or lack of need for concrete legal designations for AI technology. It is clear that as a theoretical concept AI debates ask more questions than they answer and this will be felt in this paper but the main question, worth discussion is; "What rights should AI being have and based on what characteristics of being?

Some argue that the ultimate test is if the other "being" is controlled by a person and yet there are countless example sin human history where individual humans have been physically and mentally controlled by another and in fact some would argue that the to an alarming degree humans are currently controlled by artificial intelligence. We live by the clock, the computer the electronic bank balance and likely eventually we will live by the desires and standards of much more complicated systems. Multimodal interfaces are the thing of the future and they are specifically designed to allow mimic human interaction and human thought patterns to produce results that are akin to the individual interacting with another individual, not entirely unlike them. The passage below describes the present and future "life" of multimodal interface interaction between computers and humans and a passage within it; "The... system will track and incorporate information from multiple sensors on the user's interface and surrounding physical environment to support intelligent adaptation to the user, task, and usage environment."

Oviatt 287)in other words the multimodal interface will be to some degree in control of the situation, molding the user to its purpose and altering the environment to meet the needs of the user and the AI even if the user, we presume a person does not know there is a need for alteration.

The advent of multimodal interfaces based on recognition of human speech, gaze, gesture, and other natural behavior represents only the beginning of a progression toward computational interfaces capable of relatively human-like sensory perception. Such interfaces eventually will interpret continuous input from a large number of different visual, auditory, and tactile input modes, -which will be recognized as users engage in everyday activities. The same system will track and incorporate information from multiple sensors on the user's interface and surrounding physical environment to support intelligent adaptation to the user, task, and usage environment. Future adaptive multimodalmultisensor interfaces have the potential to support new functionality, to achieve unparalleled robustness, and to perform flexibly as a multifunctional and personalized mobile system.

Oviatt 287)

Builders of AI contend that such usability will greatly add to the human experience and allow the person freedoms to contend to different issues than those controlled by the AI system. They also argue that the more "life-like" these systems become the more capable they will be of mimicking human intelligence and teaching people how to act and be in accordance with their own needs. Many would like to see AI take the form of a system that replaces the need for humans to themselves engage in mundane tasks such as cleaning, nursing and even companionship when none is available to the individual by natural means. These AI of the future will likely challenge what it means to be a "living human being" and this will be more tricky the more they look and act like people. The ultimate goal of the creator being to design and implement a tool that is almost indiscernible from a living breathing being, such as something we might see in the movies. Some argue that this is far from a forgone conclusion and that if and when such creation is possible it must be patterned off something else, in look at least it must be expressive of an entirely new visual representation, yet AI that is capable of thinking acting and learning like a human will likely be personified to such a degree that these questions must not go unanswered.

Legal rules that assume that a brief examination is sufficient to determine whether someone is alive or dead and that the latter status is irreversible might produce unfortunate results in the context of cryonic suspension. Rules that consider as legal persons only human beings or organizations of human beings and take it for granted that persons have the characteristics associated with human beings and human organizations will be wholly unsuited to a world of advanced artificial intelligence, when and if that world arrives. In these cases and many others, new technology requires new law.

Friedman 71)

Laws that restrict the designation of "being," "living," and "existence" as something that must be an entirely carbon-based organic system have yet to be developed, as there has been no fundamental need to do so. Yet, with technology adapting to create systems that are "clones" of living, breathing, organic beings does exist and will ultimately require legal distinction. It is not then difficult to take the leap to an understanding of the fact that non-organic "life-forms" will also require this distinction in the future. This is especially true if such "life-forms" take on the roles and challenges that are inherent to animal or human existence. Who is to say that an AI that learns in the same manner as a child, requires constant feeding from some source and develops cognition of emotion and knowledge that is similar to that of an animal or human does not deserve some protection for the unique manner in which it did all these things and, "survived" doing them?

As a culture we have based a good deal of our ideals and ideas about the human condition on a set of inalienable rights that protect us from encroachment by others, be it by individuals or institutions. Does it not seem logical then that at some time in the near future such debates as those debated during the civil rights movement regarding disenfranchised people, some of whom spent a good deal of their existence in a state of chattel as if they were nothing but livestock, will occur? It is also crucial to understand that the manner in which artificial intelligence is being "discovered" and invented is through a clear and decisive dissection of human intelligence. The scientific community is seeking to fully understand how the human mind (likened to a supercomputer with astronomical functionality) really works to create characteristics such as language and social learning.

Donald, (http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/~donaldclass/GradAI/noteasy1.gif)

The scientific community currently stresses that the human mind and all of its functions are far from easy to recreate or even mimic… [END OF PREVIEW]

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