Applying Leadership Theory Literature Review

Pages: 22 (7873 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Leadership

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He also questions the stated influence of leadership as depicted by many authors. He identifies marketing, strategic planning, product development and investment as other important variables contributing in determining the level of organizational performance. To support his argument, he further stated that by over estimating the influence of leadership upon organizational performance, the effect of personnel skills, hard work and motivational would be more under estimated. He highlighted this point as much considerable one as it has been ignored in the literature of leadership behavior. He suggested that relationship should properly be studied and measured with all related factors, which include both internal (leadership) and external market forces (ibid). Mott (1972) conducted empirical examination of various variables affecting organizational performance. He concluded that two most important factors are group-maintenance (relation-orientation) and task-orientation (initiating structure). However, these are important factors but their relationship is quite limited (ibid.). There are many studies explaining the relationship between leadership and organizational performance and most of them are based on two-dimensional leadership style (Andersen, 1995; as cited in Larsson and Vinberg, 2010).

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Different situations call for different leadership behaviors. High change-orientation and high relation leadership behaviors are most suitable for change effectiveness (Arvonen & Pettersson, 2002). The ability of the leader to maneuver affects the organizational performance a lot (Andersen, 1995, p. 262). While, high production-orientation and high relation produce the best results when cost-effectiveness is important. Yet there are many limitations (Stewart, 1976), neutralizers' (Kerr & Jermier, 1978) and other factors described by Yukl's model4 which ranks certain variables as constraints and hindrances to influence the behavior (Yukl, 2006; as cited in Larsson and Vinberg, 2010).

Literature Review on Applying Leadership Theory to Leadership Assignment

Quite a few scholars support the view of Bass (1981) that a combined style (structure-oriented and relation as well) along with purely relation-oriented leadership leads to increased job satisfaction among the personnel of organization. More job satisfaction leads to more motivation and productivity (as cited in Larsson and Vinberg, 2010).

It has been mentioned by Bass (1990, p. 543) in the work performed afterwards that experimentation and cross lagged surveys done in the causal analysis obscure the behaviors which are relation-oriented and in the end increasing the satisfaction level of the subordinates. It was also contributed by him that in case a leader presents a low structure which later on increases then this will increase the performance of the subordinate. Reduction occurs in the structural orientation need when the performance of the subordinate meets the required level of performance. As per Bass (1990) subordinates' feedback, it is formal or informal, is utilized by the leader so that any necessary changes can be made; hence it is an iterative process. Dedication towards motivating the subordinates and understanding their behavior instead of controlling them closely is discussed by Bass in this style of leadership. Yukl (2006) described conducts which are task oriented which directly leads towards improving the reliability of process and efficiency. For causing alterations towards the external environments, he pointed out attitudes which are change-oriented as a primary source. In order to improve human resources and human relations, relation oriented attitudes are utilized mainly. Bass and Riggio (2006, p. 56) evaluated that no matter the performance of the group is measured in an objective or subjective manner, influence of transformational leadership is there. Management systems utilization and formal programs' modification or implementation like Total Quality Management and by including formal structures' essential features, this can be one more way with which determinants of the performance can be influenced by leaders. (Yukl, 2006, pp. 370-371; as cited in Larsson and Vinberg, 2010).

As per research of Hirtz et al.(2007) and Lakshman (2006), performance quality never influenced comprehensively by the precise leadership attitudes. A theory-based model was not presented by Lakshman's effort by which values of performance of unit, attitude of leader with respect to his effectiveness, traits of leader and TQM can integrated. Empirical test are yet to be performed on this theoretical model. Larsson et al. (2007) pointed out that methodologies and values of leadership based on theory Y-oriented (McGregor, 1960) had a positive co-relation regarding quality work. Hirtz et al. (2007) evaluated the consequences of the leadership approaches including non-transactional, transactional and transformational in which leadership's full range of models was used (Bass & Avolio, 1999) and assessment was provided by Wu et al. (1997) who developed a questionnaire through which Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award's content was measured (NIST, 2003; as cited in Larsson and Vinberg, 2010).

It has been evaluated by the results that in order to implement the quality management successfully, a positive role has been performed by transformational leadership and a negative relation was also shown with the leadership involving passive approaches (management- by-exception and laissez-faire). It was indicated by the studies done previously that measured factors of the quality management have a positive co-relation with the contingent rewards and leadership done with transformation approach (Hirtz, 2002). Although, results which were generated beside this were not reliable as their data was not complete, limited and possibly a strong co-relation between implementation of TQM at different stages and dissimilar approaches of leadership (relation and task-oriented attitudes) were indicated (Turvey, 1999). While making progress from initial to final stages of TQM implementation, it can be suitable for an organization to follow additional leadership approaches rather than following just one strategy. It was suggested by the results that (as cited in Larsson and Vinberg, 2010). It was suggested by the results that in the initial stages, preference is given to the coaching approach (high in structure as well relation attitudes). In the higher stages of TQM implementation (ibid), preference is given to the participation (lower structure and high relation and attitudes) rather than coaching (as cited in Larsson and Vinberg, 2010).

Significance of leadership attitude which is relation-oriented has been highlighted by these results and alike universal factor, high relation orientation is treated. Numerous authorities have defined leadership as an essential element which can improve the effectiveness, productivity and quality of the performance of the organization (Bergman & Klefsjo, 2003; Dahlgaard et al., 2002; Deming, 1986; Juran, 1989; Kanji & Asher, 1993). In order to improve the quality it is very important for the leaders to focus on the processes which include quality improvements, quality control and quality design. There are two other concepts related to the quality management which includes TQM concepts demonstrated by 14 points listed by Deming (1986) and Bergman & Klefsjo (2003) and Dahlgaard et al. (2002) (as cited in Larsson and Vinberg, 2010).

Positive correlations were obtained by the both of the research that were based on quality management and its impacts on the performance of organization. (Alanko & Jarvinen, 1995; Douglas & Judge, 2001; Eriksson, 2003; Eriksson & Hansson, 2003; Eriksson et al., 2003; Hansson & Eriksson, 2002; Hendricks & Singhal, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999; GAO, 1991; Vinberg, 2006; Vinberg & Gelin, 2005) and relationships were more limited (Bergquist & Ramsing, 1999; Nohria et al., 2003; Przasnyski & Tai, 1999) (as cited in Larsson and Vinberg, 2010).

In the research regarding the Pygmalion leadership, basically it has been assumed that towards every follower leaders draw some expectations (Eden 1990). As the leaders have dissimilar expectations that is why their attitude towards every single follower is different and they behave according to that expectations. Difference occurs in the performance of followers due to this behavior (e.g., Eden/Shani 1982). Before discussing the results in details, a short outline about the theory would be provided by us regarding the nonverbal behavior (as cited in Schyns and Mohr, 2004).

Classroom research of Pygmalion is the basis of Pygmalion leadership research. Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) indicated that on the basis of expectations (evoked experimentally) regarding the performance of the students, students were treated by their teachers. (see also Livingston 1969; King 1971). Eden (1990) converted Pygmalion research with respect to the context of organization (training). It was assumed by him that (incorrect) information can cause impacts on the expectations of the leaders about their followers with respect to their expectations. Hence, the attitude which leaders adapt with respect to their followers is dependent upon their expectations, and subjected to the context of an organization. As a result of that efficiency belief of follower is influenced (i.e., a feel of being competent in executing particular attitude, Bandura 1977) and, hence, performance of them. (see Sutton/Woodman 1989). This reveals that in accordance with the dissimilarities in the behavior of every single follower, expectations of the leader moves towards self-fulfillment. Importantly, when variation occurs in the expectations of the leader, somehow their attitude changes instinctively. (as cited in Schyns and Mohr, 2004).

4. Psychodynamic Leadership Development

In this context, existence of this development is evident pertaining to human resource development where management staff acts as a professional group practicing their authorities that bring an important effect in the employee lives, community widely, and the surroundings (Alvesson & Willmott, 1998). Realizing this, teachers of Human resource development have been desired to include social, moral and political elements… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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