Research Paper: Archaeologist Kathleen Kenyon Biography

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[. . .] Albans), which was about 20 miles north of London. Working there each summer during the years of 1930 and 1935, Kathleen was able to learn from Mortimer Wheeler who was known as being the discipline of meticulously organized and recorded stratigraphic digging. As mentioned earlier, Wheeler had put his trust in this woman of the diggings of the Roman cinema. In the years 1931 to 1934 Kenyon really functioned at the same time at Samaria, then under the management of the British Command for Palestine, with Grace Crowfoot and John Crowfoot. There Kathleen was able to cut a stratigraphic trench that went all the way across the pinnacle of the mound and then right down the southern and northern slopes, revealing the Iron II to the Roman epoch stratigraphic arrangement of the site. Additionally to providing vital dating evidence that was for the Iron Age stratigraphy of Palestine, Kenyon was able to get her hands on the key stratified statistics in regards to the study of Eastern terra sigilata ware.

In 1934 Kenyon was carefully related with the Wheelers in the foundation of the Institution of Archaeology of University College London. As of 1936 to 1939 she was able to transport out significant archaeological site at the Jewry Wall located in the city of Leicester. For the duration of World War II, Kenyon aided as District Leader of the Red Cross in Hammersmith, London, and later on as Acting Director and Secretary of the Organization of Archaeology of the University of London.

When the war ended, she decided to go and do some excavation in Southward, at The Wrekin, Shropshire and other places in England, in addition as at Sabratha, which is recognized as a Roman city in Libya. As an associate of the Council of the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem (BSAJ), she also involved herself with was involved in the exertions to be able resurrect the School which came after the interruption of World War II. In 1951 of January she traveled to the Transjordan and accepted excavations that are positioned in the West Bank at Jericho which is on the behalf of the BSAJ. Kathleen's work at Jericho, which lasted from 1952 to around 1958, brought her out as a world well-known and recognized a long-lasting inheritance in the archaeological procedure of the Levant. Ground-breaking innovations regarding the Neolithic philosophies of the Levant had been created in this ancient expenditure. Kathleen's archaeological site of the Initial Bronze Age enclosed city and the exterior graveyards of the end of the Premature Bronze Age, in unison with her study of the stratified pottery of these eras recognized her as the leading power on that time era. All at once she likewise accomplished the magazine of the archaeological site which was at Samaria. Her capacity, Samaria Sebaste III: The Objects occurred during the year of 1957. Having finished her diggings at Jericho in 1958, Kenyon dug in Jerusalem during the years of 1961 to 1967, focusing on the 'City of David' to the direct south of the Temple Base.

Even though Kathleen really did not have any doubt that the sites that she dug up were connected to the Old Testament story she however drew responsiveness to discrepancies, closing that Solomon's "stables" at Megiddo were completely unreasonable for holding the horses (Davis, 2006), and that Jericho had fallen way before Joshua's arrival on the scene (Callaway, 2005). As a result Kenyon's work has been quoted to upkeep the Minimalist School of Biblical Archaeology.

Kenyon's legacy in the area of diggings method and ceramic practice is shown to by Larry G. Herr, which is one of the executives of the Madaba Plains Development. He features to her openly the leading of the significant proceedings which happen to be brought about by our contemporary accepting of earthenware in the southern Levant:

"The chief event was the modification of stratigraphic methods that Kathleen Kenyon's excavation at Jericho had actually catalyzed. The austere parting of earth layers, or archaeological residues, furthermore endorsed the firm parting of earthenware assemblages."

Herr also makes the detection that Kathleen's influential incidental impact in the second event that endorsed advance that is among pottery procedure, specifically:

"The import of Kenyon's excavating methods which are done by Larry Toombs and Joe Callaway to Ernest Wright's project at Balata. Here, they combined Wright's interest in ceramic typology in the best Albright tradition with Kenyon's methods of excavation, which allowed the isolation of clear, stratigraphically determined pottery assemblages." [2]

Herr summarizes the somewhat mixed nature of Kenyon's legacy: for all the positive advances, there were also shortcomings:

"Kenyon... did not capitalize fully on (the) implication of her stratigraphic techniques by producing final publications promptly. Indeed her method of digging, which most of us have subsequently adopted, causes a proliferation of loci that excavators often have difficulty keeping straight long enough to produce coherent published stratigraphic syntheses. Moreover, her insistence that excavation proceed in narrow trenches denies us, when we use the Jericho reports, the confidence that her loci, and the pottery assemblages that go with them, represent understandable human activity patterns over coherently connected living areas. The individual layers, insufficiently exposed horizontally, simply cannot be interpreted credibly in terms of function. This further makes publication difficult, both to produce and to use."

Kenyon's brought a lot of contributions because her excavations at Jericho certainly did revolutionize thoughts that had been previously held about the Neolithic society Nevertheless, to correctly measure 'the extent' most experts would agree to really take a closer look at her contributions, we would have to first take a bigger look at the ideas that were held by prehistorians regarding the Neolithic society before Kathleen made this famous digging at Jericho. It has to be understood that before Kenyon's diggings at Jericho all of the ideas that had been held by pre-historians in regards to the Neolithic society were extremely not the same. In regards to her contributions she was the one that was able to notice that at the place of Jericho there had been a 16 meter-high mound called Tell es-Sultan. She was able to find out that this mound was made up of a lot of different layers or 'strata' of remains from numerous epochs of human occupation.

She brings in a lot of contributions because she was able to present from this mound the fact that many would be able to see the history and prehistory in regards of Jericho.

One of the first things that really attracted archaeologists to the ancient site of Jericho was maybe the hope of discovering some type of evidence that supports the biblical positions made to Jericho about Joshua and the Israelites (Jews). Kathleen did a good job with bringing contributions to archeology because she was able to display through her diggings the biblical story that shows the fact that after the death of Moses the Israelites were pushed into Palestine by Joshua. She goes on to show that one of the first cities they came across was Jericho. Afterward transporting the spies into the city, God then was able to speak to Joshua and then the walls distorted and the Israelites murdered everyone inside, and then burnt the city to the ground.

Kenyon and her team also made some contributions that involved uncovering skulls that had dated all the way back to the 6000 BC. The skulls that they had the flesh removed and cowry shells introduced into the eye's sockets. She was able to display to the world that the features of the skulls had all been molded in certain types of plaster. She brought in some contributions because she was able to show the world that from these skulls that they dug up as well as bones that were found on the site, archaeologists have been able to assume that the first foremost populations of Jericho had bones that were very small, 150cm tall, with long skulls and delicate features. However, this would not have been likely if not for Kathleen and her diggings at Jericho.

The remains of houses that were discovered by Kenyon and her team had displayed that they had contained of a dome-like structure which had been created from wattle and daub, and then later on, it would turned into rectangular mud-brick type of houses. They had also made the contribution by discovering the fact that there were no roads or streets that had been among these households, persons connected finished open patios.

In conclusion, it is clear that Dame Kathleen Kenyon is considered to be a person that appears to have always been a larger-than-life type of person, and it is safe to say that she has turned out to be one of the most influential woman archaeologists of the 20th century. Many would say that she has brought remarkable contributions to archeology and not just her numerous accomplishments in the field but also… [END OF PREVIEW]

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