Arrest Rates Against Race Literature Review Chapter

Pages: 7 (2270 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 7  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Race


However, the probability model will solely focus on the disparities among the whites, Hispanics and black arrest rates, assuming any possible bias within the judicial systems. This model will estimate the frequency differences in criminal activities between the whites and blacks. As well, it will take control for the correlated factors and frequencies of crime commitments against race. Under this estimation, if the correlation between the ratio of whites and blacks to the whites' arrests is greater than one, then that will elicit the evidence of racial bias within the policing methods.

As stated by Shah and Pease (1992), there exists a problem in studying the arrest data- overcoming the potential reporting bias against crimes. Several research results reveal that the whites report crimes more frequently than the non-whites. This elucidates the fact that the blacks commit a greater number of crimes on the whites than the rate at which the whites commit crimes on blacks upon the population control for the racial proportions.

Data Methodology

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In this research, a cross sectional analysis on the variations of the ratio of black and white arrests will be performed since the ratio of black to white populations varies across the states. The target source of data for this research will be from two sources: (i) the BJS (Bureau of Justice Statistics), which will provide crime data with regards to race at state levels, and (ii) the ACS (American Community Survey) which will provide socio-economic data from the U.S. nationally representative samples. The research team will then sort this data by race and then aggregate it up to state levels in order to come up with measures on how the whites and blacks differ in terms of socio-economic sense within every state (Becker, 1968).

A mathematical framework will be necessary to calculate and explain the empirical results (Jones & Luo, 1999). To do this, the ratio of the black to white arrests will be examined by the following formula:

The Ratio of Black to White Arrests = blacks arrested/whites arrested

= {B x P (B)} / {W x P (W)}

Where W = number of whites

TOPIC: Literature Review Chapter on Arrest Rates Against Race Is Assignment

B= number of blacks

P (W) = P (CW)P (AW CW) = the probability of the arrested white individuals

P (B) = P (CB) P (AB CB) = probability of the arrested black individuals

P (Ar Cr) = the probability that an individual is arrested given a crime has been committed

P (Cr) = probability that an individual commits a crime

Thus, the ratio changes of blacks to whites within a state influences the ratio of black to white arrests, depending on the probabilities that every group will undergo and arrest for any criminal offense. If the whites and blacks have equal probabilities of arrest, a single unit-change in the ratios of blacks to whites will lead to equal change (unit change) in the racial composition of arrests (Jones & Luo, 1999).


In an attempt to explain the relationships and disparities in arrest rates the whites, blacks and Hispanics, there is a challenge arising due to the two competing explanations. The first explanation considers the differing frequencies of criminal activities; while the second explanation encloses the aspect of racial bias within the police methods, or it may encompass both explanations. Most of the research documents elicit that the black individuals are three or four times likely to involve in criminal activities; hence warranting them more arrest cases as compared to whites. This scenario, thereby, explains their stand for the disparities in arrest rates among diverse races within the U.S., as well as the other western nations. Using a probability model and formula given above, this research will serve to investigate and analyze the possible reasons for the existing disparities in criminal arrest rates against the human race. Under the assumption that no racial bias exists within the police methods, this research will scrutinize the relationship between race and arrest rates and some of the reasons for the wide disparities.


Becker, G.S. (1968). Crime and punishment: An economic approach. Journal of Political

Economy,76(7), 172-216.

Blumstein, A. (1982). Racial Disproportionality of the United States' prison populations.

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology,73(2) 159-181.

Bowles, R. & Pradiptyo, R. (2005). Young adults in the criminal justice system: Cost and benefit considerations. Economics and Psychology, 47(3), 27-61.

Butler, P. (2010). One hundred years of race and crime. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 99, 143-160.

Jones, R. & Luo, Y. (1999). The culture of poverty and African-American culture: An empiricalassessment. Sociological Perspectives, 42(3), 439 -- 458.

Shah, R. & Pease, K. (1992).Crime, race,… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Arrest Rates Against Race" Literature Review Chapter in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Arrest Rates Against Race.  (2014, February 2).  Retrieved August 5, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Arrest Rates Against Race."  2 February 2014.  Web.  5 August 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Arrest Rates Against Race."  February 2, 2014.  Accessed August 5, 2021.