Term Paper: Artificial Intelligence What Is AI?

Pages: 11 (3129 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Engineering  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] It has yet to impress the people that really count: financial officers, corporate treasurers, and the like. This is quite understandable, however; who is willing to sink money into a system that they do not understand? Until a track record is set for chaos, most will be unwilling to try, but to gain the track record, someone has to be the first to attempt to understand 'it'; the "catch-22."

The chaos theory can be useful in other places, as well. Kazuyuki Aihara, an engineering professor at Tokyo's Denki University, claims that chaos engineering can be applied to analyzing heart patients. The pattern of the beating heart changes slightly and each person's pattern is different (Ono 41).

Considering this discovery, a Japanese data processing company has marketed a physical checkup system that uses chaos engineering. This system measures health and psychological condition by monitoring changes in circulation at the fingertip (Ono 41).

Aihara admits that chaos-engineering has tremendous potential but does have limitations. He states, "It can predict the future more accurately than any other system but that doesn't mean it can predict the future all the time."

Along these lines, Rabi Satter, a computer consultant with a BS in Computer Science, believes the current sentiment that the world is rational and can be reduced to mathematical equations is wrong. Satter is quoted as saying, "in order to make great strides in this arena [AI] we need new approaches informed by the past but not guided by it. A fresh voice if you would. As one person said we are using brute force to solve the problem."

Field and Benefits

Now that each type of implementation of AI has been discussed, how do we use all this technology? Foremost, neural networks are used mainly for internal corporate applications handling various types of problems. For example, Troy Nolen was hired by a major defense contractor to design programs for guiding the flight and battle patterns of the YF-22 fighter. His software runs on five onboard computers and makes split-second decisions based on data from ground stations, radar, and other sources. Additionally, it predicts what the enemy planes will do, consequently guiding the jet's actions (Schwartz 136).

Now he and many others design financial software based on their experience with neural networks. Nolen works for Merrill Lynch & Co. To develop software that will predict the prices of many stocks and bonds. Murry Ruggiero also designs software, but his product forecasts the future of the Standard & Poor's index. Ruggiero's program, known as BrainCel, is capable of giving an annual return of 292%.

Another major application of neural networks is in detecting credit card fraud. Mellon Bank, First Bank, and Colonial National Bank use neural networks able to determine the difference between fraud and regular transactions (Bylinsky 98). Mellon Bank states the new neural network allows them to eliminate 90% of the false alarms that occur under traditional detection systems (Bylinsky 99).

Secondly, fuzzy logic has many applications that hit close to home. Home appliances win the most ground with AI enhanced washing machines, vacuum cleaners, and air-conditioners. Hitachi and Matsushita manufacture washing machines that automatically adjust for load size and how dirty the articles are

(Shine 57). This machine washes until the clothing is clean, not just for ten minutes.

Matsushita also manufactures vacuum cleaners that adjust the suction power according to the volume of dust and the nature of the floor. Lastly, Mitsubishi uses fuzzy logic to slow air-conditioners gradually to the desired temperature. Power consumption is reduced by 20% using this system (Schmuller 27).

The chaos theory is limited in scope at this time mainly because of lack of interest and resources with which to experiment. Wall Street, however, will be hearing more about it for a long time to come.

The medical field also has an interest because of its ability to distinguish between natural and non-natural patterns.

The chaos theory has a foot in the door, but a breakthrough in design will have to come around first before any major moves will be made toward the advantages of chaos theory.

Expert systems are prevalent all over the world. This proven technology has made its way into almost every location where human experts live. Expert systems even can show an employee how to be an expert in a particular occupation.

A Massachusetts company specializes in teaching good judgment to new employees or trainees. Known as Wisdom Simulators, this company sells software that simulates nasty job situations in the business world. The ability to learn before the need arises attracts many customers to this type of software (Nadis 8). Expert systems have also been applied in medical facilities, the diagnoses of mechanical devices, planning scientific experiments, military operations, and teaching students specialized tasks. Knowledge-based systems and case-based reasoning will be on the rise for a long time to come. These systems are enhanced expert systems that provide more powerful searching and decision-making strategies.

KBS is finding a home at help desks by working with telephone operators to direct calls. CBR will have close ties to law with its ability to use past precedents to determine a sentence and prison term. KBS is already being used by the Tennessee Department of Corrections for determining which inmates are eligible for parole (Peterson 37).

The Debate

Making recommendations on which AI systems work the best almost requires AI itself. I believe, however, that some are definitely better than others. Comparison Neural networks, unfortunately, have performance spectrums that continue to dwell at both extremes. While there are some very good networks that perform their designed task beautifully, there are others that perform miserably.

Furthermore, these networks require massive amounts of computing resources that restrict their use to those who can afford it. On the other hand, fuzzy logic is practically a win-win situation. Although some are rather simple, these systems perform their duties quickly and accurately without expensive equipment; easily replacing many mundane tasks that others computer systems would have trouble handling.

Fuzzy logic has enabled computers to calculate such terms as "large" or "several" that would not be possible without it (Schmuller 14). On the other hand, the chaos theory has the potential for handling an infinite amount of variables. This gives it the ability to be a huge success in the financial world. It's high learning curve and primitive nature, however, limit it to testing purposes for the time being. It will be a rocky road for chaos theory and chaos engineering for several years.


Finally, I, think expert systems, knowledge-based systems, and case-based reasoning systems are here to stay for a long time. They provide an efficient, easy to use program that yields results with which none can argue.

Designed correctly, they are can be easily updated and modernized. While the massive surge into the information age has ushered some old practices out of style, the better ones have taken over with great success. The rate of advancement may seem fast to the average person, but the technology is being put to good use and is not out of control. A little time to experiment with the forefront technologies and society will be rewarded with big pay-offs. Soon, there will be no uncharted place and no stone unturned.

Computers are the future of the world and we should learn to welcome their benefits and improve their shortcomings to enrich the humanity's condition the world over.

Expert Systems are here to stay. They are an excellent way of making decisions, proving these systems likely determine the best possible decisions. Expert Systems are being generated all over the planet and have a tremendous underlining to ideas and decisions that some companies or areas of producers and consumers don't even realize. We will have a huge need for it in the future as companies become team oriented and committees create the fate of ideas and progress.

The Artificial Intelligence in Expert Systems will create the last word because it will become the right word. I love expert systems because they require the gathering of minds yet simulate thinking for themselves, gathering all conclusions to create the optimal conclusion.

Following is an example of the most recent expert System in today's world; college football bowl games go by a computer which the called "BCS." The computer takes all aspects of a college schedule -- points, strength of schedule, wins, losses, and so on and determines who deserves to be in what bowl game. Here, Expert Systems decide the fate of our large universities all across the United States.

Expert Systems are taking over; I love this vision of the future and plan to create my own. This was the most important topic of the class -- without showing any favoritism -- and the quality of research and relevance of the topic were important facets to my future.

Works Cited

Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic… [END OF PREVIEW]

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