Term Paper: Artificial Intelligence and the Human

Pages: 10 (3081 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Education - Computers  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] In the system, ASCI White had 8,192 microprocessors, powered by 1.2 megawatts electricity. The machine was 1000 times more powerful than its predecessor, the Deep Blue.

The feature above obviously showed human the wonder of human brain itself. Human brain operates "1000 times faster than ASCI White," IBM said, and they continue the plan that would create a computer that would take over human brain competence in 10 years.

C. Facilitating the Development of Artificial Intelligence Industry

Human brain also develops, requiring basic sources and special environment to be able to function well. Without oxygen, water, artistic environment human doesn't think well. This phenomenon should be explained with computing system. Human has more than just analytical thinking and ability to perform tasks based on specific instruction and ability to calculate numbers accurately based on series of function commands. Human can do better in analysis, which is accompanied by custom decision-making process, sense of appreciation, sense of detest, artistic function, psychological stimulation, ability to choose after options, flexibility to change minds.

Dreyfus, as cited in Dunn (2002) said, beyond the sophisticated functions, there are things that even the modern machine cannot accomplish. He based his analysis on the biological and psychological assumptions. Dreyfus believed, judging that brain and computer architecture are similar authorities. Psychologically, computer and human brain also digest information in different ways, for example human accepts information through the five senses and communicates through words. Accepting information for human relates with sorting the words, emotional elements, ideas, and other features that construct human to be individual and social creature. Computer, meanwhile, accepts information in symbols, codes, and machine language.

Dreyfus also added "epistemological assumption" as the third feature to differ human brain and artificial intelligence concept. There is the ability to manipulate symbols that human often demonstrates. Human brain can show different ability, or different responds that people show, although they receive the same information, perform on the same medium and complete the same task (Dunn, 2002).

The last difference is on "ontological assumption" or "language achievement." So far, although programmers have written interpreting and translation programs, none of them can replace the function of human word interpretation. Similar problem appears in artificial intelligence concept. Language does not follow the strict, formal conception where computer can draw exact meaning of discourse. Language interpretation depends not only on formal rules but also on value and situation where a conversation takes place. It is quite difficult for a machine to be able to integrate emotional, verbal, and non-verbal symbols at once and responds it just like human does. In this case, until now, there is no presumption built for achieving this intelligence in smart machines.

Whether artificial intelligence possible or not, human cannot make fair judgment before seeing it from different point-of-views. Thompson (2002) said that a machine with the addressed artificial intelligence should be able to demonstrate "awareness and consciousness."

Awareness recalls the result of the operating process that takes place in the brain. Brain has specific mechanism exactly like a machine. There are layers of neural functions and many unexplored spaces that never been listed in scientific researches before. Just this way, brain has demonstrated the ability to perform various complicated tasks, which come in as profuse incoming information, then sorted into different chambers by the implementation of analytical thinking, and then presented by variety of possible solution to overcome the problem, or to produce responds.

Machine's working procedures resembles the capability of the brain to sort information and to make decision (involuntary and on purpose) to come out on the result. Simple computing operations also work on the same basis. The complicated computing or engine function derive from the more complicated commands assembled into the machine central memory of the system. This is what human currently assume how intelligence can be stored in artificial medium, and programmed to accomplish special utility. The creator of this concept could have been started with the hypothesis that brain works like a machine and it is possible to create similar device.

On the other hand, Feigenbaum and Feldman, as cited in Thompson (2002) started the controversy from the exact definition of "intelligence and thought." Computer does think in significant way as human brain does, if the process involves procedural "experimentation and observation" to answer a question or to understand a concept. However, computers cannot perform the defined "thinking" term meaning as the real thinking process in human brain often utilizes some unexplained "mysterious, mystical" way to digest an input. Moreover, computer does not think the real way human does. Human can translate their thought as metaphorical process, which can go far beyond the physical boundaries of worldly capabilities. Human can include millions of different values during the thinking process, and human's brain develops through time, therefore there could be different "computing" result that human brain achieves through different computing process. Machines certainly cannot perform this.

If a scientist designs a robot to learn from its surrounding to be able to perform and think like human, perhaps the robot follows the programmed assumption that it should follow human behavior patterns. The robot can compare a number of sample patterns withdrawn from observation and calculation from human activities. After examining the typical situation it has to deal with, a robot may show certain "behavior" just like human normally does, including, perhaps, emotional performance feat.

This means, robot can feel, since through its interaction with human and human world, it will collect numerous data about emotional features in people, including how to choose proper expression to show to other people under certain circumstances. In this case, robot can replicate human brain in learning through the environment and imitating words, actions, and in higher degree, value acceptance, just like a child learns from a family. This type of robot can produce the social appearance in performance to bear a resemblance to human's social attitude; only they develop it from mechanical procedure rather than using the common sense like human does.

As the features in robots are limited, in may take a long time to achieve this goal. With the limitation of machines, currently robot can only carry out the program as the programmer instructs it to do. In the future scientists will need to examine, if the robot succeeds in developing social functions just like what have been said above, will it be able to learn how to change mind, laugh at humorous stories and satire, develop certain personality, change personality, or differ between the good or evil.

Everything for robot is taught through patterns, with limitation in coding and data entry, and also limitation of examples. This means, without preliminary human actions set as models, a robot cannot predict accurately the best decision it should take, and also, a robot cannot consider the psychological effect of a decision taken for human. Furthermore, if robot doesn't have enough assumptions to build the correct pattern to develop, it may come out with corrupt analysis and wrong decision. For example, a robot has X numbers of reference in its database where all decision-making process will be based on. Unfortunately, the database doesn't contain the "good example," or best facets of information to derive reasonable analysis with fair decision, it may come out with less accurate assumption. In case a robot only has depraved information to make assumption upon a case, and it develops its "brain" from this, the result could also be unsatisfactory.

In the final words, scientists may now work on the closest benefit on how artificial intelligence can help the real duties in human life. Sources and time are limited, and so far, limited things have been helping much. For example, industries use custom robots that handle specific function each, to replace human hands so that manufacturing processes take less time than employing human workers. Robots also benefit surgery process, where the high-accuracy of robot's computing ability can perform direct section on patient's organ. In this case, robot-based operation saves time and increases precision that will produce better result and reduce patient's common pain from surgery.

Scientists need to give direction and certain plan what benefit it will get to create machines with equal intelligence as human, to accentuate human position itself in the modern world. The aim of creating intelligent machine should be addressed to helping human increase efficiency, save time, simplify process, and increase production, not to create new community, especially if the creator cannot guarantee the machine will function normally in positive manner. If they fail to commit to the objective, it is possible that such magnificent creature contain potential hazard to the society.

References

Chan, T.C. & Petrie, G.F. (1998). The Brain Learns Better in Well-Designed School Environments. In Classroom Leadership Online. Vol. 2, Number 3, November 1998. Retrieved May 19, 2003 from The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Web site: http://www.ascd.org/readingroom/classlead/9811/2nov98.html

Dunn, J.S. (2002). Thinking Machines. Retrieved May 18, 2003 from Washington State University. Web site: http://www.wsu.edu/~honors/thesis/complete_thesis/fall_2002/Jeffrey_Dunn.pdf

Harris, T. (2003). How Robots Work. Retrieved May 18, 2003… [END OF PREVIEW]

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