Arts Management the Evolution Essay

Pages: 6 (2006 words)  ·  Style: MLA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Art  (general)

Arts Management

The Evolution of Arts and Cultural Districts

For decades now the process know as gentrification is often the end result of the creation of Cultural districts created b artist willing to live in substandard conditions as they work on an promote their art. Galligan reviews the process of creating and cultivating cultural districts in an attempt to understand and revitalize the process as well as circumvent the eventual gentrification of the area that is seen resulting, "… in a loss of the very quality of life that artists bring to an area." (Galligan 140) She cites from several authors on the subject and creates a well-rounded history and project development overview in the creation of cultural districts and compounds with the view of preserving the artistic community.

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She first defines what a cultural district is suing the broad-based definition put forward by Hilary Anne Frost-Krurnpf in 1998. "Frost-Krumpf defines a cultural district as a 'well-recognized, labeled, mixed use area of a city in which a high concentration of cultural facilities serves as the anchor of attraction?'" (Galligan 131) Frost-Krurnpf creates five different categories with which to define particular types: cultural compounds; major arts institution-focused districts; arts and entertainment-focused districts; downtown-focused districts; and cultural production-focused districts. The latter two however are exceptions to the previous definition, as they do not traditionally have an anchor in some industrial or commercial based art company and are now referred to as Second Wave Cultural districts.

…the primary focus of these districts is on individual artists and small arts businesses. The trend is to view a cultural district less as an institutional phenomenon than as an individual one, a collection of artists usually working independently or as part of a loosely affiliated network. (Galligan 131)

TOPIC: Essay on Arts Management the Evolution of Arts and Assignment

Primarily this involved artists moving into blighted areas for the cheap rents of very large industrial spaces that were highly adaptable to a wide range of needs the artists may have. However, most of the time after the artists moved in a began to create better living conditions and income, rents went up and forced them out as real estates values rose and property taxes increased. The wealth soon came in to take over the spaces. She cites the most famous gentrification experience as SoHo in lower Manhattan, though many other areas have seen the process occur.

Changes to this process occurred in the 1990 creating a new grass roots effort utilizing artist to breath new life into downtrodden city sections. Richard Florida's 2002 book, The Rise of the Creative Class, "codified the new way in which artists were being viewed start-ing in the late 1990s; it was known as the creative economy movement." (Galligan 136) Now there are direct assessments and connection both with individual artist and large companies. Municipalities participate in not only the creation of an arts community but often purchase artwork, culture and signage from the artists within the community center as well.

While this article is certainly historically accurate there are some details missing from the mix in creating a successful art's community and restoration of blighted city areas. There is mention of research into the dollar return on investment in the arts, but does this apply to all communities? Certainly some cities may not have the per-capita income to participate in this kind of process, while the city may buy the artwork, if the surrounding culture is not willing the process may stall.

Two Artists

The initial impetus of this author is that "Americans don't take artist ver seriously," (57) which he states in the first paragraph. The two artists that the title reefers to is the work of that the artist is known by and then the person him or herself. He quotes from a college roommate that "Every family wants a Picasso hanging on the wall, but no family wants one standing in the living room." (57) Being an American that respects artists this initial introduction to this article did not set well. However, it is understandable and the author perhaps is exaggerating in order to make a point, that artist, especially in an economic downturn, are often neglected.

The Author lists three general conditions that must be present for any artist to flourish: One, "conditions must be conducive to originality" (58) in other words there must be some way for the artist to work and to have enough money and shelter to get by. Two, "they need respect for their ideas and their approach to problem solving." (58) Again, this respect in really in the form of financial compensation provided by those who praise originality and see the broader view of the benefits. Three, "artists must be free to draw on - to synthesize - the work of contemporaries as well as creativity from the past." (58) While the author does not further explain this line, it is inferred that copyright infringement often makes this impossible for the young artist with not money to pay royalties. Of course, should large corporation or unsympathetic governmental agencies dictate the avenues of art, most of these criteria would not be met.

The author first discusses the career of Bob Dylan, now an American legend and Icon, as an example. In the early days of his career had sold between eight and nine thousand albums on his first release, not exactly setting the world on fire even in the 1960's. Dylan's work was not initially well received. The legendary record producer John Hammond had been promoting Dylan, who had then become known as "Hammond's folly." The powers that be wanted to drop Dylan, "…the head of Columbia's pop division, David Kapralik, decided the folksinger had to go. But Hammond, by then established as the dean of Columbia's in-house producers, put his job on the line, and it worked." (60) Hammond, according to the author, hits the nail on the head when he says the following:

"Too much rides on the success or failure of a record, on guessing the future of a singer or a song…Too many voices have too much to say about too many artistic decisions. And fear is making musical impulses more cautious than they should be." (61)

This appears to thrust of the author's opinion that many artists do not find the necessary supports unless someone, like Hammond, notices and literally puts his job on the line in order to push the artist through the gates and into the limelight of success. Hammond's quote, form 1960, still reverberates today and in some sense has gone the other way. Shows like American Idol have circumvented some of the gatekeepers of success and given talent a chance to prove itself, or at leas that is the intention.

The author continues the debate about the lack of artistic support and then segues into another avenue of thought. Understanding that the product of the artist is one result for entertainment and enjoyment, the author goes to another value, "the unique combination of insight, imagination, and inspiration that enables artists to see problems with fresh eyes." (64) This, he contends, will help to offer alternate solutions to problems in other areas, "The creative individuals who make art can bring special perspective to public policy." (64) He then goes off on an apparent tangent talking about President Reagan, complimenting him as an artist (once actor) and the role that this played in his success. He then goes into a plethora of other examples of art in society, which are quite apropos, but his meaning behind it all seems to be completely abandoned and lost to the reader by the end, in an attempt to fuse art with government and business into on ambiguous mass that is somehow inter-cooperative and supporting.

Defining Cultural and Artistic Goods

Not traditionally referred to a commodities in the traditional sense, the products of artistic and cultural expression are treated here by the author as having value that is both intrinsic as well as monetary, or as the author puts it, "economic and non-economic." (McCain 150) This is the crux of the problem in not only defining what cultural and artistic goods are, which is not completely clear here, and how to mesh both the inherent and pecuniary value of these goods. "The difficulty, then, is to construct a scheme in which one can meaningfully distinguish economic from non-economic values." (McCain 151) In other words, to get both economists and cultural and artistic patrons to agree on the universal concept of value for these goods.

To hopefully clarify the debate the author quotes from the social philosopher Robert Nozick, who is an advocate of a free-market as well as neoclassical economics.. Nozick uses an example from art class comparing how one appraises paintings to this current dilemma, "A painting has aesthetic value, theorists have held, when it manages to integrate a diversity of material into a tight unity often in new and striking ways." This then is translated by Nozick's theory into monetary value along the following line, "The greater the… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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APA Style

Arts Management the Evolution.  (2009, May 7).  Retrieved November 27, 2021, from

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"Arts Management the Evolution."  7 May 2009.  Web.  27 November 2021. <>.

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"Arts Management the Evolution."  May 7, 2009.  Accessed November 27, 2021.