Asia Pacific Business China Term Paper

Pages: 12 (3202 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 26  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Business - Management

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
Furthermore the organizations in Australia are of diverse opinions as compared to the Chinese and the organizations in Australia hold to the belief of harmony on ethnic issues and are more integrated into the thought-process in diversity.

There exist the factors of motivation by autonomy and uncertainty in employment for the Australian manager than for the Chinese. Australians are also more achievement motivated. In comparison to the Chinese independence and control are much less factors of motivations for the Australians as well as being less motivated by security on the economic level. Finally Australians are less motivated by ambition.

"Compared to their Chinese, Indian and South African counterparts, Australian managers indicate a significantly higher commitment to ethical principles with lower commitment to business objectives regardless of means, and a lower commitment to organization, results, work and relatives." "The management in the Australian business are said to have a "higher internal and lower external locus of control than Chinese..[as well as having] a higher commitment to maintenance of ethical principles."

Differences between the Australian and the Chinese practices in management include the "use of rank, extent of confrontation and assertiveness, information sharing and communication and also in management principles in particular status/achievement orientations, philosophical assumptions about employees and extent of internal/external control." Kabanoff, Jimmieson, and Lewis (in press) suggest that 'command and control' 'style organizations endure and thrive in a relatively stable, predictable and undemanding environment."Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Term Paper on Asia Pacific Business China and Assignment

They believe that Australia may have provided a fertile breeding ground for this type of organization, as for much of the twentieth century; Australian organizations have operated in a centrally controlled industrial relations environment, protected from foreign competition by high tariff barriers and benefited from high prices for exported commodities. And as a result, Australian organizations have enjoyed a comfortable, bureaucratically controlled existence. The current study pointed out differences that exist between Australia and the Chinese and South African organizations operational and strategic orientations.

The study states that:

'Sharing the same business logic is a requirement for cultural fit. Yet in terms of management principles, significant differences existed in all of the items between Australia and China, India and South Africa, and 6 of the 8 management practices. Clearly, such differences have the potential to cause considerable problems managers need to be aware of, and resolve."

It is widely accepted that the future well being of the Australian economy depends to a large extent upon the global competency of its enterprises, including their ability to efficiently produce and export both elaborately transformed manufactures, and services. The Karpin Report (1995) identified the development of internationally competitive enterprises as the fundamental means of achieving improved living standards for Australians, and the ability to manage issues affecting international business is paramount to Australian managerial and business success.

It is argued by Adler (1997) and Teagarden et al. (1995) that management practices from developed countries can be appropriately adapted and transferred to emerging countries.

South Korea & Japan:

Consumers in South Korea have a hangover from credit card borrowing binge however, according to the Finance and Economics report the banks have pretty much recovered netting 1.68 trillion split between the 19 domestic banks for the first quarter of this year. The profit however was only a minimal amount due to the bad consumer debts which dropped earning by 63% in 2003. South Koreas economic structure was a manufacturing industry along with the agriculture, forestry and fishing industry. The GDP expenditures are reportedly "extremely high in proportion of gross fixed investment."(The Economist June 2004)

Labor reforms in South Korea have caused quite the outcry and the policy makers work is cut out for them while exports have been hit by the "collapsing microchip prices and reduced per-capita productivity"

Japan has been dealing with the same problem and despite the legendary animosity that exists between Japan and South Korea the two countries have comparable models of economic development that is government led. In the early 1990 Japan managed to bring business groups to set up production facilities in the country and throughout Asia and turbocharged the forming of the Japanese manufacturing sector.

However, it is stated in and Asia Week report that a "prolonged recession has forced many companies to dismantle their lifetime employment systems, retrench workforces and introduce promotion based on merit more than seniority. Meantime, the position of dynamic small and medium-sized firms, which normally play second fiddle to the behemoths, has received a boost from the shakeout." (Asia Week News 2004)

Korea faces similar transitions in the country during its own labor reforms. However Korea has not got the win-win option because any decision on the economic level that effectively cuts wages has heavy social and human impacts as the middle-aged, white collar class will be the most devastated. Korea must transition away from the "managed economy' toward one that is more liberal and expediency is the call word in the implementation of the new economical and trade system in the country. The public in Korea is skeptical at best and the government is in the position of very urgently needing to explain this to the public in a way that they are able to understand that the choice is not an optional one if the economical outlook for Korea is one with hope in the future.

In Economist Online News Report

stated was that: another news report it was stated that: "The union protests that erupted after the quick fire passage of a controversial labor reform bill on Dec. 26 may signal the crumbling of Korea's trusted economic model. The new law makes it easier for firms to lay off staff and use temporary or seasonal labor, without incurring big extra costs. Companies that face bankruptcy, or are restructuring to boost competitiveness, will no longer have to defend the legality of their decisions in court every time they dismiss employees. Legislators of the ruling New Korea Party (NKP) were well aware their move could have explosive consequences. Long resisted by oppositionists and union leaders, the reforms threaten one of the central tenets of contemporary Korean culture: the lifetime employment used to reward its workforce's loyalty. NKP lawmakers convened an early-morning parliamentary session to pass the bill, without the knowledge of opposition MPs. The proceedings took just six minutes. The popular outcry came within hours. As labor leaders condemned the changes as a fillip for powerful business groups at workers' expense, Korea was wracked by nationwide stoppages, clashes between strikers and police -- and a sit-in by opposition MPs at the National Assembly."

Multiliberalization of trade along with the balance of payments and the restrictions imposed would have a huge impact on trade. When the restrictions on trade are decreased along with the relaxation of the policies in the developing countries and among all countries to the lowest possible level a resulting 14% increase has been projected. (World Economic Outlook 2002)

One of the results of the involvement by the Korean state in the economy was the emerging new and successful chaebol and as results of the state economic plans for development in January 1962 many large enterprises were established just before the sixties. The continuous military conflict that involves Japan and South Korea plays a leading role in society in these countries and the involvement of multinational companies has been minimal at the most to none. The original organizational policies established in South Korea were done so by the government of the state of Israel who set up the economics of the country in a fashion that did not promote normal economic development but did however, promote development. In the 1960's and 1970's South Korea received large quantities of funds in financial resources from other countries and they became less dependent on direct foreign investment. Local business people played a part in the development and were able to gain a foothold without the presence of the multinational organizations.

The dominant present feature in the South Korea economy are the business groups. A Common factor in Japan and South Korea is that both plans for 'democracy' were borrowed from other governing states.

Bibliography:

Manufacturing stabilizes Economic structure (2003) From the Economist Intelligence UnitSource: Country Profile [Online] at: http://www.economist.com/countries/SouthKorea/profile. cfm?folder=Profile%2DEconomic%20Structure

Jones, Janet T. et al. (nd) Managing People and Change: Comparing Organisations and Management in Australia, China, India and South Africa SCHOOL OF COMMERCE RESEARCH PAPER SERIES: 01-5 ISSN: 1441-3906 [Online] located at: http://www.ssn.flinders.edu.au/comme rce/researchpapers/01-5.htm

Lindholm, N. (1999) Performance management in MNC subsidiaries in China: A study of host-country managers and professionals. Asia Pacific Journal of Human esources, 37(3): 18-35.

Lasserre, P. And Schutte, H. (1995) Strategies for Asia Pacific. Melbourne: Macmillan.

ACIRRT (1999) Australia at work: Just managing? Sydney: Prentice Hall

http://www.economist.com/countries/SouthKorea/profile.cfm?folder=Profile%2DEconomic%20Structure

Asia Week Online (2004)

http://www.asiaweek.com/asiaweek/97/0117/ed1.html

Kim, Eun Mee (1997) Big Business; Strong State: Collusion and conflict in South Korean Development 1960 -- 1990. Albany: State University of New York

Adler, N. (1997) International dimensions of organisational behaviour, 3rd edn. Ohio: South-Western College Publishing.

Affirmative Action Agency (1999) Women in… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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