# Aspects of Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Primary School Education Research Paper

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for $19.77 ¶ … Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Primary School Education

Technology and Mathematics education (technology as a whole or individual aspects of technology e.g. use of calculators, smart board, web quests, laptops, data projectors, calculators, Web 2 activities) or The Australian Government has taken a strict action to fortify the primary education standards so as to fully explore and utilize the Australia's future i.e. youth. We believe that the aptitude for innovation is very much dependent upon the comprehension, skills development and grooming attitudes in our young people. This will require encouragement of both students and teachers to take an extra step and revise the old thought processing levels so as to incorporate the new set of brain storming linage required to excel in the coming future. The development in primary and junior secondary school to strengthen the groundwork in science, mathematics and technology, and encouragement of students to continue studies in these important areas, is therefore vital.

If we go back into the literature we shall be amazed that mathematics was amongst the first few subjects to incorporate the use of technology to ease the thought processing. The invention of abacus by Chinese in 2600B.C is still in usage, this only fortifies the literature's truth. One can see that the introduction of abacus was a two fold achievement. A) It was one of the first tools to assist in making calculations and the pioneer for the calculators nowadays. B) The simplicity with which it can be used and transform an otherwise complex and tangible corporeal image of mathematics into simplified sets of numbers. It is the only kind of its invention. It is amazing how even after 2600 years this invention has same popularity as eons ago. (Means, B 2004)

Hence the two key words "calculation" and "illustration" go hand-in-hand, both in olden times and in the times today. For example, nowadays with the advent of Geoboards (It consists of a wooden board and nails symmetrically aligned. Rubber band is wound around these nails and the suggesting shapes are use to explore basic concepts in geometry) and Dynes Blocks (mathematical place-value system in which "523" means five hundreds, two tens and three ones) teachers can make use of concrete manipulative and sophisticated tools to help students learn by illustrating and supporting calculation and simplifying them into intangible form.

Definition of Issue and Themes

1) Teachers should reduce the load that is insignificant to the existing learning goal and rather unwire students brain to a more genuine thinking that is useful to what they should be learning. For example while solving an arithmetical expression not only does the student need to keep in check about the methods and laws to arrive at a right answer but also keep in mind complex sets of figures. Hence this builds up his cognitive load (i.e., thinking difficulties) and increases the likelihood of confusing the materials. With the simple use of calculator not only will the burden of remembering numbers go way but also makes things more coherent for student to learn. Hence we can deduce that the miracles of technology not only extend to it becoming the basic necessity because of its ease but also because it has extrapolated the minds, thought processing and student's focus in ways that are germane and not extraneous.

2) After realizing the need for technology another very important question that arises is its intervention. We need to find a cut off where to establish and intervene the use of technology as anything in its infinity might start opposing the effect rather than creating a positive effect. What is important or relevant depends on the mathematical topic and maturity of the student. For example in primary school, it is important to learn the basic subtraction addition questions fluently. Hence intervention of technology before hand might have inappropriate results. On the contrary in secondary school, the same set of students has mastered arithmetic and should be pushed a step ahead by making them focus on more advanced skills and concepts. Computational support for lower-order details can then be very important. For example, (Burrill et al., 2002; Ellington, 2003) researchers have found that when calculators are accessible to decrease the computation details, teachers can focus better on the following:

Germane problems

Making sense with investigation and multiple representations.

In culminating supple strategies.

Connotation and concepts in mathematics

3) Piaget discovered that the first thing that kids do in visualizing thoughts in their brains is that they develop ideas concretely and later the try to operate and progress to abstractions. Hence in designing and learning the situation, it is often helpful to apply this principle in quash: so the first thing you do is that you give students an abstract idea to learn and then assist them and provide full support to them with more tangible visualizations.

4) We need to learn that with new era of technology and complex mathematical syllabus being formulated the teachers also need to update her teaching styles to incorporate the best of both world for example many students do not understand the justification of arriving to some mathematical property formally but when a paper drawing of an isosceles triangle is made they can recognize and fulfill the task and achieve its goal. Hence suffice is to say that the sketches on paper or on the blackboard can make ideas substantial, motionless sketches often are unsuccessful to convey the mathematical principles. Hence here you can successfully make use of technology and extend your students horizon with an ICT-based geometry tool, where students make different shapes, can seize and tow a corner of a geometric constructions and analyze its properties and justifications. By doing this the student is able to formulate its proof and much more that is able to understand the abstract reasoning behind and this shall strengthen their concepts in maths more vividly.

Researchers have established that when technology is successful in converting complex abstract theories into digestible easy clean ideas teachers can more easily:

Enhance student's knowledge.

Highlight associations in mathematical concepts.

Attend to common misinterpretation.

Launch more sophisticated ideas. ( Roschelle et al., 2001;diSessa, 2001):

5) Amalgamation of technology into the classroom can develop mathematical interest in children too. Teachers can take it to another step by using technology to introduce better mathematics (Roschelle et al., 2000). This will assist the teachers to focus less on the trivial stuff like memorizing the laws and justification and complex tangled sets of numbers rather than brainstorming on finding ways to get an answer, explore multiple sets of solution, make association with different branches of mathematics into one linage, finding ways to justify their answers which is what the core of mathematics is. By achieving this goal teachers can commence more difficult mathematical topics in advance. Hence this shall be a two-sided sword where both the students and teachers can achieve their goal more steadfastly and properly.

Review and Analysis of Literature

There has been an ever long lasting debate on the use of calculator and the period at which it should be introduced. In 2007 Kaput, J, showed in primary teaching the use of calculators has always been a controversial subject. A lot of struggles have been put into expansion of the mathematical materials and databases using calculators to simplify learning of mathematical concepts. In this research no negative relationship was seen with the intervention of calculators in primary school. Their proofs specify that there was no decay of computation skills from students using calculators in an initial age in another study an opposite side of the picture was being discussed. In the recent Californian debate it showed there is an opposite effect of the use of calculators as reflected of the mathematics syllabus (it is advised in to introduce the use of calculators in the new syllabus until secondary years). Hence its not sure shall the use of calculator in such a contextual background let kids grasp on to other important mathematical notations easily by decreasing the cognitive load or shall degrade their initially developing a cognitive skills in mathematical arithmetic.

The prospectus focuses on the use calculators as a calculating instrument. It Is basically the result of a coherent philosophy towards mathematics: as calculators are part of the modern society, so we teach students how to use it. It is little related with academic concern. Students are not seen as mastering a brand new learning instrument when using calculators. The erudition aim will be seen to be accomplished when students reveal the capacity and familiarity to use a basic calculator.

Hence in Australia a brochure on paradigm activities of using computer software in teaching mathematics had been fashioned for some pilot schools. The beginning of 2000 saw the integration of mathematics with soft wares like power-point, power-publisher excel point etc. Few schools have joined hands in extending this use because not all schools have access to updated mathematical technology hence this is a piloting process and much needs to be thought on how… [end of preview; READ MORE]

for $19.77 ¶ … Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Primary School Education

Technology and Mathematics education (technology as a whole or individual aspects of technology e.g. use of calculators, smart board, web quests, laptops, data projectors, calculators, Web 2 activities) or The Australian Government has taken a strict action to fortify the primary education standards so as to fully explore and utilize the Australia's future i.e. youth. We believe that the aptitude for innovation is very much dependent upon the comprehension, skills development and grooming attitudes in our young people. This will require encouragement of both students and teachers to take an extra step and revise the old thought processing levels so as to incorporate the new set of brain storming linage required to excel in the coming future. The development in primary and junior secondary school to strengthen the groundwork in science, mathematics and technology, and encouragement of students to continue studies in these important areas, is therefore vital.

If we go back into the literature we shall be amazed that mathematics was amongst the first few subjects to incorporate the use of technology to ease the thought processing. The invention of abacus by Chinese in 2600B.C is still in usage, this only fortifies the literature's truth. One can see that the introduction of abacus was a two fold achievement. A) It was one of the first tools to assist in making calculations and the pioneer for the calculators nowadays. B) The simplicity with which it can be used and transform an otherwise complex and tangible corporeal image of mathematics into simplified sets of numbers. It is the only kind of its invention. It is amazing how even after 2600 years this invention has same popularity as eons ago. (Means, B 2004)

Hence the two key words "calculation" and "illustration" go hand-in-hand, both in olden times and in the times today. For example, nowadays with the advent of Geoboards (It consists of a wooden board and nails symmetrically aligned. Rubber band is wound around these nails and the suggesting shapes are use to explore basic concepts in geometry) and Dynes Blocks (mathematical place-value system in which "523" means five hundreds, two tens and three ones) teachers can make use of concrete manipulative and sophisticated tools to help students learn by illustrating and supporting calculation and simplifying them into intangible form.

Definition of Issue and Themes

1) Teachers should reduce the load that is insignificant to the existing learning goal and rather unwire students brain to a more genuine thinking that is useful to what they should be learning. For example while solving an arithmetical expression not only does the student need to keep in check about the methods and laws to arrive at a right answer but also keep in mind complex sets of figures. Hence this builds up his cognitive load (i.e., thinking difficulties) and increases the likelihood of confusing the materials. With the simple use of calculator not only will the burden of remembering numbers go way but also makes things more coherent for student to learn. Hence we can deduce that the miracles of technology not only extend to it becoming the basic necessity because of its ease but also because it has extrapolated the minds, thought processing and student's focus in ways that are germane and not extraneous.

2) After realizing the need for technology another very important question that arises is its intervention. We need to find a cut off where to establish and intervene the use of technology as anything in its infinity might start opposing the effect rather than creating a positive effect. What is important or relevant depends on the mathematical topic and maturity of the student. For example in primary school, it is important to learn the basic subtraction addition questions fluently. Hence intervention of technology before hand might have inappropriate results. On the contrary in secondary school, the same set of students has mastered arithmetic and should be pushed a step ahead by making them focus on more advanced skills and concepts. Computational support for lower-order details can then be very important. For example, (Burrill et al., 2002; Ellington, 2003) researchers have found that when calculators are accessible to decrease the computation details, teachers can focus better on the following:

Germane problems

Making sense with investigation and multiple representations.

In culminating supple strategies.

Connotation and concepts in mathematics

3) Piaget discovered that the first thing that kids do in visualizing thoughts in their brains is that they develop ideas concretely and later the try to operate and progress to abstractions. Hence in designing and learning the situation, it is often helpful to apply this principle in quash: so the first thing you do is that you give students an abstract idea to learn and then assist them and provide full support to them with more tangible visualizations.

4) We need to learn that with new era of technology and complex mathematical syllabus being formulated the teachers also need to update her teaching styles to incorporate the best of both world for example many students do not understand the justification of arriving to some mathematical property formally but when a paper drawing of an isosceles triangle is made they can recognize and fulfill the task and achieve its goal. Hence suffice is to say that the sketches on paper or on the blackboard can make ideas substantial, motionless sketches often are unsuccessful to convey the mathematical principles. Hence here you can successfully make use of technology and extend your students horizon with an ICT-based geometry tool, where students make different shapes, can seize and tow a corner of a geometric constructions and analyze its properties and justifications. By doing this the student is able to formulate its proof and much more that is able to understand the abstract reasoning behind and this shall strengthen their concepts in maths more vividly.

Researchers have established that when technology is successful in converting complex abstract theories into digestible easy clean ideas teachers can more easily:

Enhance student's knowledge.

Highlight associations in mathematical concepts.

Attend to common misinterpretation.

Launch more sophisticated ideas. ( Roschelle et al., 2001;diSessa, 2001):

5) Amalgamation of technology into the classroom can develop mathematical interest in children too. Teachers can take it to another step by using technology to introduce better mathematics (Roschelle et al., 2000). This will assist the teachers to focus less on the trivial stuff like memorizing the laws and justification and complex tangled sets of numbers rather than brainstorming on finding ways to get an answer, explore multiple sets of solution, make association with different branches of mathematics into one linage, finding ways to justify their answers which is what the core of mathematics is. By achieving this goal teachers can commence more difficult mathematical topics in advance. Hence this shall be a two-sided sword where both the students and teachers can achieve their goal more steadfastly and properly.

Review and Analysis of Literature

There has been an ever long lasting debate on the use of calculator and the period at which it should be introduced. In 2007 Kaput, J, showed in primary teaching the use of calculators has always been a controversial subject. A lot of struggles have been put into expansion of the mathematical materials and databases using calculators to simplify learning of mathematical concepts. In this research no negative relationship was seen with the intervention of calculators in primary school. Their proofs specify that there was no decay of computation skills from students using calculators in an initial age in another study an opposite side of the picture was being discussed. In the recent Californian debate it showed there is an opposite effect of the use of calculators as reflected of the mathematics syllabus (it is advised in to introduce the use of calculators in the new syllabus until secondary years). Hence its not sure shall the use of calculator in such a contextual background let kids grasp on to other important mathematical notations easily by decreasing the cognitive load or shall degrade their initially developing a cognitive skills in mathematical arithmetic.

The prospectus focuses on the use calculators as a calculating instrument. It Is basically the result of a coherent philosophy towards mathematics: as calculators are part of the modern society, so we teach students how to use it. It is little related with academic concern. Students are not seen as mastering a brand new learning instrument when using calculators. The erudition aim will be seen to be accomplished when students reveal the capacity and familiarity to use a basic calculator.

Hence in Australia a brochure on paradigm activities of using computer software in teaching mathematics had been fashioned for some pilot schools. The beginning of 2000 saw the integration of mathematics with soft wares like power-point, power-publisher excel point etc. Few schools have joined hands in extending this use because not all schools have access to updated mathematical technology hence this is a piloting process and much needs to be thought on how… [end of preview; READ MORE]

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