Assessments Evaluation Term Paper

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¶ … Early Childhood Special Education

Lesson Title -- the Life Cycle of Butterflies -- Science and Language Arts

Students will understand the life-cycle of monarch butterflies.

Every year millions of monarch butterflies manage to find their way from hatching grounds in North America to wintering grounds in Mexico. These butterflies log up to 2,000 miles to arrive at their destination: a few fir tree-covered ridge tops in Mexico that none have ever been to. How do these lovely butterflies know where to go? What are modern threats to the survival of this creature? Why would this matter?

INPUT: Either using individual computer workstations or a central unit, Play the video on Butterfly Parts) the first will be on the characteristics of a Butterfly -- what makes a butterfly? Key terms will be body parts and functions:

"Butterfly Parts," (2010). Animal PlanetDiscovery Channel. Cited in:

Key Terms: Legs, Eye, Wings, Mouth, Abdomen, Thorax

Place large piece of butcher paper on board (or use wipe board or overhead camera). Divide into three columns, KWL (Know, Want to Know, Learned). As teacher explains chart, students will form their own in their lab books.

Explanation/Modeling: Ask students to recall what they learned during the short video. Have them name a butterfly part, and then define its function. There may be more in column W. after the video. Now, before the 2nd video, ask students to brainstorm more about the monarch -- then we watch the video to determine answers.

ASSESSMENT -- Have students draw a butterfly and then label each part based on the key terms. Purpose of the assessment is to know 6 terms about a butterfly, which will also translate to other science lessons about insects. Students were assessed on their ability to recall and explain each of the parts, expectations were that they would be able to label and identify at least 4 of the 6 parts. This would be done in a "show and tell" manner, since the writing abilities of this level are disparate.

RELIABILITY - This particular assignment uses a butterfly because of the ease of explanation of the various body parts. Instructor spent time showing the similarities and differences between human parts and butterfly parts -- and what the insect's parts are used in function. Essentially, the issue is both memorization (names) and understanding (parts go where and do what) with the stretch goal of application of knowledge to other insects and/or describing functions. Kept simple, the functions should be workable due to similarity with their own anatomy (e.g. mouth for eating, eye for seeing, etc.). Using Bloom's Taxonomy, we have covered the bottom three levels, which is adequate for this level and cognitive ability.

PROCEDURE - Students were given 10-15 minutes to make their drawing and label the parts. The picture of the parts done at the beginning of the lesson was left in the room, but no mention or focus was made to it. Instead, instructor looked at each drawing, and had a series of labels with pictures (see below), asking the student to place the label onto their drawing at the appropriate place, then explaining the function of that part.

SCIENCE ASSESSMENT -- Based on remembering and understanding the different parts and placing the labels in the correct place upon their drawing.

LANGUAGE ARTS ASSESSMENT - Based upon explanation, word choice, complexity of thought and grammar in explaining what each Butterfly part does functionally and how it is similar and different than that of humans.

SCORING- Scores-based completely on percentiles and ratios. For this class, there were 18 students, scores listed below:

Drawing / Identification


Explanation of Functions




Balanced, all major areas of Butterfly (head, eyes, wings, abdomen, thorax, legs) apparent.



Explains all areas and able to identify and correctly make comparisons to similarities and differences



Balanced, 5-6 parts correct



Explains most areas, good comparisons on most



Semi-Balanced, 4 parts correct



Explains some areas and explanations are limited



Unbalanced, 3 or fewer parts



Not able to explain more than one concept

Clearly, the lesson was more effective in the drawing and identification than the explanation. 72% of the students performed average or above on part 1, while only 49% performed well on the explanation. Fifty percent of the class was only able to provide limited explanations of functionality on a few of the areas (typically eyes and legs).

EFFICACY -- it is likely that the limited time of the lesson with limited review contributed to the scoring. This population clearly needs more practice and reinforcement to concepts in order to find ways of self-exploration and understanding. Additional pedagogy would be helpful in connecting in groups, forming a butterfly with each student a part and then having them explain that part, additional films or stories about butterflies, and moving into concept memorization and drill coupled with using plush or plastic butterflies to employ the kinesthetic to help in memorization (Bedford, 2007).

CONCLUSION -- Background knowledge in simple words and concept was used, finding similarities and explaining basic physiological concepts that these students deal with daily to reinforce and buttress facts. Sets up additional science lessons and continues with Language Arts growth and development, hopefully moving into synthesis of information. Additionally, using color, more art (paint, sequins, other techniques) to reinforce concepts may be beneficial (Krogh and Slentz, 2001).

Part 1 -- Secondary Students

Lesson Title -- Geometric Shapes

OBJECTIVE - Geometry -- Exploring shapes using hands on manipulatives to make said shapes.

INTRODUCTION: Students realize that lines, segments, rays, and points exist not only on paper but in the world around them. They will be able to identify, describe, and compare line segments, lines, rays and angles and use appropriate symbols; will communicate mathematical understanding in journals using words and/or pictures, numbers, and symbols.

INPUT: Use Flashcards (See Step 1) showing examples of rays, points, lines, segments, parallel lines, perpendicular lines, and intersecting lines. Make a game of having students identify and define concepts. Move on when initial vocabulary is mastered. In a group or small groups, class is asked to stand in a circle. Yarn is passed around the circle. Students hold onto a small piece of the yarn and then pass it either across the circle or next to them (or some variation), to form a web design. Teacher insures that there are some parallel and perpendicular lines. The "web" is carefully laid down on the floor so that every student has a clear view of it. The laminated alphabet points are placed at intersecting points on the web. These points allow everyone a way in common to name rays, line segments, lines, etc., using mathematical terminology. Students could use their own pieces of paper and draw grids as in a maze; could be part of an art project with push pins and string as well; could also integrate with a theme about spiders and webs; in schools that are allowed, could integrate into Seasonal theme (Baiker and Robinson, 2004).


1. Ray - a line starting at a single point and going on forever in one direction.

2. Point - a fixed spot on a plane.

3. Line - a straight line going on forever in both directions.

4. Segment - a line with two endpoints.

5. Parallel - Two lines, line segments, or rays that are constantly equidistant apart from one another so that they never intersect.

6. Perpendicular - a line, line segment, or ray that touches or intersects another line, line segment, or ray at a 90 degree angle.

7. Intersecting - Two lines, line segments, or rays that touch or pass through one another at any angle.

Use flashcards to drill on vocabulary and concepts (note, in reality, more than one flashcard used with some horizontal, vertical, side-to-side, etc.). List for illustrative purposes:

MULTIDISCIPLINARY INPUT: Ferrell and Kerr, (2008). The Great Polygon Caper. ASSESSMENT MANIPULATIVE: The Web (of course, actual web will look different depending on number of students and where they pass the yarn; colors represent movement from one student to the other) (Gauggel, 2000):

1. Circle of Students

2. Yarn Lines

3. Labels

4. Points may be added

ASSESSMENT -- the final formative lesson will consist of each student presenting their answers to each other; some rays, some lines, etc. They will verbally name their shape, write it down, illustrate it, then post it (tape it) to the board. For example, "Line AB or Line segment AB is perpendicular to line segment CD."

PROCEDURE - Each student sits near the web with a wipe board. Ask students to find (one at a time) rays, points, lines, segments, intersecting lines, parallel lines, and perpendicular lines. Students must re-draw each figure on their wipe board, label it correctly, and write the symbolic form. Students use the alphabet points that were placed at intersecting points on the web to label the lines, rays, etc. that they find. Then students… [end of preview; READ MORE]

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