Attack of 911 Has Posed Term Paper

Pages: 10 (4017 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 14  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Transportation

TWIC involves an assimilation of the standard background screenings and biometrics in order that a worker can be securely matched to his or her credential. With complete adoption of the program The TWIC card will emerge as the standard credential for airport workers and will accepted by all modes of transportation. Besides, TSA has been developing the next-generation Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System or CAPPS-II. (Aviation Security Progress since September 11, 2001, and the Challenges Ahead)

Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
for $19.77
CAPPS-II is one of the automated passenger screening systems that embody personal information so that the identity of the passenger could have easily ascertained at times of contingency. The security requirements envisages running of the identifying information against national security information and commercial databases and assignment of a risk score to the passenger. The risk score determines further probe into the passenger prior to going onboard. Moreover, the TSA has also developed initiatives so as to enable it to apply its passenger screening instruments more efficiently. It has attempted to develop a registered traveler program that affords to prescreen low-risk travelers. Under such program after voluntary application to participate the low-risk travelers after going through a background check would receive a unique identifier or card that would enable them to be screened more quickly and would concentrate more on the other passengers necessitating more extensive screening. At the same time FAA also concentrated more on the strengthening of security of the nation's air traffic control computer systems.

Term Paper on Attack of 911 Has Posed Assignment

FAA has instated an information systems security management structure headed by the Chief Information Officer, the office of which has developed an information systems security strategy, security architecture, security policies and directives and a security awareness training campaign. This office also managed the FAA's incident response center and implemented a certification and accreditation process to ensure that vulnerabilities in current and future air traffic control systems are identified and weaknesses dealt in effectively. Irrespective of the fact that TSA has concentrated much making it certain that the bombs and other threat items are not carried into the commercial aircraft by passengers in their luggage the risk continues that influence much on the air cargo, general aviation and airport perimeter security. It has been estimated by TSA that about 12.5 million tons of cargo are transported every year out of which 9.7 million tons are transported on all cargo planes and about 2.8 million tons are transported on passenger planes. (Aviation Security Progress since September 11, 2001, and the Challenges Ahead)

The inherent risks involved in this respect are introduction of undetected explosive and incendiary devices in cargo placed aboard aircraft; the transportation of undeclared and undetected hazardous materials; aircraft hijackings and sabotage by perpetrators having access to cargo aircraft. ATSA lay down that all cargo carried aboard commercial passenger aircraft is screened and that TSA is required to adopt a system to screen, inspect or ensure the security of cargo on all-cargo aircraft. The primary approach of the TSA to ensure air cargo security and safety and to comply with the cargo screening stipulations is to adopt its 'known shipper' program that allows shippers that have instituted business histories with air carriers or freight forwarders to ship cargo on planes. Many measures have been taken by the TSA during the period for increasing the cargo security that includes implementation of database of known shippers which has been developed in the same analogy to that of Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System.

The General Aviation Security is also considered much vulnerable since general aviation pilots are not screened before taking off and the cargo carried by the general aviation planes are not subject to screening at any checkpoint. FAA has instructed with voluntary guidance to flight schools and businesses that entail services for aircraft and pilots at general aviation airport. The guidelines include application of varied keys for access to the aircraft and start the ignition and not providing students access to aircraft keys ensuring positive identification of flight students and training employees and pilots to report suspicious activities. The Airport Perimeter Security is considered to be quite vulnerable in paving the way for individuals to attain unauthorized access to aircraft and secure areas of airports. There is the possibility of launching attack by the terrorists using a shoulder-fired missile from the perimeter of an airport as well as from locations just outside the perimeter. It is therefore, felt significant for TSA to coordinate with FAA and the airport operators for application of a number of technologies to secure and assess airport perimeters that incorporate barriers, motion sensors and closed-circuit television. (Aviation Security Progress since September 11, 2001, and the Challenges Ahead)

Following the attack of 9/11 an ad hoc Research, Engineering & Development Advisory Committee -- REDAC, security Subcommittee is constituted in U.S.. The objective of the subcommittee is to evaluate varied aviation security research opportunities and entail short, mid and long-term suggestions in respect of the promising technologies for security benefits. The objective of FAA has been to eradicate the possibility of all potential damages to aircraft, passengers and crew along with support for national security and counter terrorism. The Subcommittee studies various available technologies and recommended for implementation of the same to combat occurrence of such future incidents. (Aviation Security Initiatives Post September 11, 2001)

The regulation of people coming out or entering into the protected areas like physical buildings, information systems and national borders, are considered as one of the primary requirement. The adoption of biometric technologies in the sphere of aviation security was considered more effective. The Biometric technology automates the identification of people by means of one or more their distinct physical or behavioral features. The Biometric technologies are varied in complexity, capabilities and performance and can be used for the purpose of verifying or to institute a person's identity. The peculiar biometric technology involves application facial recognition, fingerprint recognition, hand geometry, and iris recognition, etc. And it could be applied in order to screen the identity by means of measuring and analyzing the human natures depending upon the attributes of the individual. And this is in contrary to the things the individual may have or would know about. The identification of the physical characteristics or attributes is based on the direct measurement of the physical part of the body. On the other hand we could understand that the behavioral characteristics or features are inclusive of the data which are acquired from actions, like the speech and signature. The traditional identification methods are found to normally apply something you have like that of identity card or something one would know like that of the password. (Aviation Security Challenges in Using Biometric Technologies)

However, the biometrics technology lays stress on the characteristics integral to something you are. The Biometrics technology is considered to be a young technology. There prevail three key performance metrics such as false match rate FMR, false non-match rate FNMR and a failure to enroll rate FTER. In order to enhance the performance effectiveness the systems have been developed with integration of two or more biometrics. Multiple biometrics normally involves combination of facial and iris recognition. Some systems also integrate fingerprint and facial recognition technologies to enhance identification. The biometric application to become more effective necessitates identification, exchange and integration of information from various and probably unfamiliar sources and functions. The standards prescribed by National Institute of Science and Technology known as Common Biometric Exchange File Format facilitate data exchange between various system components and simplify integrating the software and hardware from various vendors. (Aviation Security Challenges in Using Biometric Technologies)

The Aviation Security Biometrics Working Group formed in joint collaboration of FAA and the Department of Defense Counter-drug Technology Development Program Office examined the application of biometrics in respect of four aviation security applications such as identity verification of employees thereby ensuring access of only authorized personnel to the secured areas within an airport; safeguard of public areas in and around airport using surveillance; identify verification of passengers boarding aircraft and verification identity of flight crews prior to or during a flight. (Aviation Security Challenges in Using Biometric Technologies) Prior to 9/11 only Explosive Detection System was normally applied for screening checked bags belonging to persons identified by the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System. CAPPS facilitated the air carriers to concentrate EDS screening on a limited number of passengers. (Aviation Security Initiatives Post September 11, 2001)

Taking in to consideration the hazards of 9/11 incident the congress mandated to screen out all checked baggage applying explosive detection systems at airports by December 31, 2003. The TSA made considerable progress in establishing Explosive Detection System -- EDS as well as Explosive Trace Detection systems that apply chemical analysis to detect traces of explosive material vapors or residues, in 400 airports of U.S. To entail efficacies in screening baggage. However, previously, the use of stand alone ETD and the minivan-sized EDS machines installed primarily in airport lobbies and were not integrated in-line with airport baggage conveyor system. By the end of… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

Two Ordering Options:

Which Option Should I Choose?
1.  Buy full paper (10 pages)Download Microsoft Word File

Download the perfectly formatted MS Word file!

- or -

2.  Write a NEW paper for me!✍🏻

We'll follow your exact instructions!
Chat with the writer 24/7.

U.S. Foreign Policy After 911 Term Paper

Future of Governmental Controls in Bioterrorism Term Paper

Role of State and Local Law Enforcement Is Within Homeland Security Term Paper

Sexuality and the War on Terror Essay

Fahrenheit 9/11 Documentary Film Fahrenheit 911 Research Paper

View 200+ other related papers  >>

How to Cite "Attack of 911 Has Posed" Term Paper in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Attack of 911 Has Posed.  (2005, September 18).  Retrieved September 21, 2020, from

MLA Format

"Attack of 911 Has Posed."  18 September 2005.  Web.  21 September 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"Attack of 911 Has Posed."  September 18, 2005.  Accessed September 21, 2020.