Term Paper: Attention Deficit Disorder or ADD

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Attention Deficit Disorder or ADD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-ADHD is considered to be a general psychiatric problem occurring in childhood and frequently continue into the adulthood. (Szymanski; Zolotor, 114) the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-ADHD if left untreated has the prospective devastations for the child and their relationship with parents, peers, teachers and just about everyone else. (Jenson, 40) the magnitude of occurrence of ADHD is estimated to differ from 2 to 20% however; the incidence of this problem in clinical practice is estimated to differ from 6 to 8%. (Johnson, 75) the ADHD is regarded as a neurophysiologic disorder expressed in terms of behavioral features and related to considerable morbidity in the sphere of social and academic achievement and self-respect. The ADHD is actually associated with the co-morbid psychiatric complicacies and learning disabilities that further inhibit the considerable improvement of these patients. This problem calls upon the education, development, peer functionality and self-respect of the children. (Szymanski; Zolotor, 114) Mostly three sub-types of ADHD viz. predominantly hyperactive impulsive; predominantly inattentive and a combination of both are normally acknowledged. (Johnson, 75)

To detect Attention Deficit Hyperactivity -ADH ailment, a thorough history from the family and use of rating scales to gather observations from two or more settings are needed. To enhance academic performance and behavior in most patients, efficient treatment is required, which comprises of conduct management, suitable educational position and stimulant medication. The family physician can successfully assess and organize the preliminary therapy for many of these disturbed children within the office setting with the help of a planned approach and an extensive general knowledge of stimulant therapy. In case of those children for whom preliminary management is unsuccessful or for whom the diagnosis is ambiguous or intricate, they should be forwarded to suitable mental health professionals. (Taylor, 88)

History of ADD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder -ADHD is, in fact, in existence for several years. A brief timeline illustrating the progression of ADHD and our comprehension of it are given below. A British doctor named "Still" recorded cases concerning impulsiveness. He named it as 'Defect of Moral Control.' but, he assumed that this was a medical diagnosis, and not a religious one. In 1922, indications presently connected with ADHD were recorded and given a diagnosis of 'Post-Encephalitic Behavior Disorder'. Dr. Charles Bradley, in 1937, initiated the use of stimulants to cure hyperactive children. In 1956, Ritalin was first launched as a treatment for hyperactive children. Stimulant medication became more extensively used during 1960s. The major indication would have been hyperactivity and this is the only sign that was regularly treated. (the History of ADHD)

The name 'Minimal Brain Dysfunction' was used in the beginning of 1960s and was altered to 'Hyper kinetic Disorder of Childhood' in the late 1960s. In 1970s, other indications like lack of focus and daydreaming were linked with impulsiveness. Impulsiveness was extended to consist of verbal impulsiveness, cognitive impulsiveness and motor impulsiveness. American Psychiatric Association -APA imparted the present name "Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) +/-," in the DSM III in the year 1980. ADHD and ADD were discrete diagnosis. (the History of ADHD)

In 1987, the APA renamed the disorder as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and mentioned that it was a medical diagnosis that could lead to behavioral problems. They observed that these behavioral problems are different from those triggered by emotional uproar, such as divorce or shifting to a new locale. In 1996, the FDA accepted Adderall, the second medication, for treatment of ADHD. In 1998, the American Medical Associated declared that ADHD was one of the thoroughly investigated disorders. In 1999, the current additional medications like Concerta, Focalin and Strattera have been accepted for the treatment of ADHD. (the History of ADHD)

Cause of ADD

The actual reason of the occurrence of the ADHD is not yet revealed. Combination of various reasons for the occurrence of the ADHD has been advanced during the past two decades. The reasons as publicized in the media, to illustrate food additives and sugar, have not been backed with practical facts. (Searight; Nahlik; Campbell, 56) the growing impact of the complicacy in families points out involvement of some genetic component in some cases. (Arcus, 22) the children are prone to develop the complicacy themselves those have an ADHD parent or sibling. Prior to even the birth of the ADHD children they are associated with poor maternal nutrition, viral infections or maternal substances abuse. In the early periods of the childhood association with lead or other toxins may result in ADHD-like symptoms. The traumatic brain injury or neurological complicacies may also activate the ADHD signs. Irrespective of the fact that the accurate reason of ADHD is not known, disequilibrium in respect of some neurotransmitters, the liquid in the brain that facilitate transmission of the messages between nerve cells, is taken as the process that results in ADHD. (Bower, 127)

Most of the scientists consider that the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder -ADHD crops from a yet to be deciphered brain malfunctions. The complicacy is estimated to be evident with one to twenty school age children that incorporate a confined attention span, constant fiddling and wandering, and frequent impulsive and disruptive acts. In certain cases, however, these signs may represent biologically-based personality that served people well in pre-historic environments even if such inclinations inflict havoc in the schools at present. A research team headed by Peter S. Jensen, a psychiatrist at the National Institute of Mental Health in Rockville has been necessitated. Md. Traits attempted to link the complicacies that exist with the varying combinations and differing intensities through out the general populations as explained by Jensen and his colleagues. (the History of ADHD)

The scientists could perceive that amidst the dangerous, food-deficiency circumstances when the hunter-gatherers mostly inhabited, a hyperactive and get-up-and-go intention in some of the individuals have led to exploration of the prospective scopes and risks. In the same circumstances, quick drifting of attention and spontaneous, sparking responses would have helped in locating threats and defending against them. The Jensen's group in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the December, 1997 issue brought out in consequence with the natural instinct coupled with childhood experiences like growing up in impoverished or abusive families some modern youngsters may visualize the world in a response ready method identified with ADHD signs. The safer and more relaxed environment in the childhood of some foster the thoughtful style appreciated in many classrooms and workplaces. Jensen and his co-worker further emphasized that an extensive interaction with the television and video games during the childhood may foster improvement in the brain system that scan and drift the attention at the cost of those that concentrate attention. (the History of ADHD)

Dr. Ben Feingold in a much exposed study put forth that the allergies to certain food additives results in the symptoms of hyperactivity of ADHD children. Irrespective of the fact that some children may have unpleasant reactions to some foods that can influence their activities to illustrate an inflammation might temporarily cause a child to be unfocused from other tasks, carefully regulated follow up studies have uncovered no link between food allergies and ADHD. Another commonly misleading conception about food and ADHD is the fact of consumption of sugar results in hyperactive activity. Moreover the analysis has revealed that there is not relation between the sugar intake and ADHD. It is, however, pertinent to note that a nutritionally balanced diet is quite significant for normal development in respect of all the children. (Bower, 128)

Symptoms of ADD

It was evident that about 9% of the school-age children exert the signs of the attention-deficiency and hyperactivity complicacies. The complicacy is known by impulsivity, inattention and motor restlessness. Such signs are more particularly present in the pre-school years that are demonstrated in a series of settings and are in harmony over time. It is prevalent in 3 to 5% of the population of the school-aged children. In the clinical analysis, the boys are six times vulnerable to have AD/HD in comparison to that of the girls; while the population based analysis reduce the ratio to 3:1. It is estimated that the about 50% of children with AD/HD continue to exhibit signs of adolescence and adulthood. About 19% of the school-age children have problems relating to their activities about fifty percent depicting about attention or hyperactivity problems. (Smucker; Hedayat, 26)

The children with AD/HD suffer from serious functional problems like school difficulties, academic underachievement, trouble interpersonal relationships with family members and peers and low self-esteem. (Herrerias; Perrin; Stein, 83) in order to detect the AD/HD, DSM-IV necessitates the presence of at least six of the subsequent symptoms of inattention in combination with six or more symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity. Inattention involves the failure to extend close attention to detail or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or other activities; led to experience difficulty in concentrating in the tasks and activities; do not appear to listen to the speeches; normally sets aside the tasks… [END OF PREVIEW]

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