Attitude and Behavior Developmental Task Term Paper

Pages: 50 (13216 words)  ·  Style: APA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 15  ·  Level: College Sophomore  ·  Topic: Black Studies

ATTITUDE and BEHAVIOR DEVELOPMENTAL TASK NEEDED to ASSIST African-American COLLEGE STUDENTS WITH DEVELOPING a CLEAR COMMITMENT to SUCCEED AFTER COLLEGE

There is an acknowledged identity crisis present in the African-American race due to the high rates of incarceration and low education achievements. The college environment serves to influence the development required in the self-identity transition toward the self-actualization of the individual in gaining a view of identity characterized by achievement. There is a delay in achievement associated with the failure to accept self or group identity. This work will illustrate that attitude is linked to talk development and behavioral adjustment which is part of the requirement for making the commitment for achievement in educational attainment. Principles of military discipline and leadership will also be reviewed in relation specifically to College ROTC programs, which assists in development of character among students that may be applied in management in corporate management following college.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

There is a lack of research addressing how college ROTC leadership development influences the behavior and attitude development tasks of African-American students. The education gap, high levels of incarceration and income differences between African-American and other groups may be a result of behavior and attitude development short falls.

BACKGROUND of the STUDY

Research shows that the dominant culture in United States expects specific behaviors and attitudes from individuals according to their age group and level of education. Successful achievement of a developmental task allows the individual to acquire the experience needed to accomplish other subsequent developmental tasks as they are encountered throughout life. Some college administrators use the following developmental task as part of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA)(Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999 to access were students are in their development process: (1) Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. This task is defined by four subtasks: Educational Involvement, Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, and Cultural Participation; (2) Task 2 Developing Autonomy Task, which is defined by four subtasks: Emotional Autonomy, Interdependence, Academic Autonomy, and Instrumental Autonomy; and (3) Mature Interpersonal Relationships Task which is defined by two subtasks: Peer Relationships and Tolerance.. All too often young African-American college students who lack commitment and desire are left behind in education, career development and lifestyle planning due to lack of sufficient leadership development during the college years. The majority of research concludes that African-American College Students are considered to be in the moratorium phase or exhibit identity exploration without commitment. Research shows that African-American students growing up in the United States may be at risk of failing to achieve basic identity development because of their lack of commitment (Marcia, 1966, 1980 & Branch 2002). A review of models such as Marcia's expansion of Erikson's identity model to Chickering's vector theory will be provided. W.E.B DuBois's concept of "double identity" and Erikson's writings concerning "adaptive coping" in minorities will be presented along with an overview of Afrocentrism, cross-cultural viewpoints, acculturation, and culture-specific viewpoints (Burt, Halpin 1998). An overview of College Army ROTC Leadership Development techniques will be provided.

PURPOSE

The purpose of this study is the addition to the body of knowledge to assist professors and college students with exploring the influence of ROTC leadership development on the African-American planning skills. The purpose of this study is to determine whether development task achievement status of African-American students enrolled in College Army ROTC Leadership Development Programs differ from African-American students not enrolled. This study is significant because it provides insight into some of the underlying variables that may be responsible for the lack of commitment in multiple developmental task areas.

METHODOLOGY

Students will complete an online self-report questionnaire. Upon completion of the questionnaire, respondents will receive a monetary reward or extra credit in a related class. The selected research tool will be used to quantitatively address research questions will be the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA) (Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999). The purpose of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA) is to provide an assessment tool and procedure that educational practitioners can use with young adult college students to facilitate development of life purpose,

SIGNIFICANCE of the STUDY

The researcher wants to add to the body of knowledge to assist professors and college students with exploring the influence of ROTC leadership development on the African-American developmental task achievement. This study is significant because it provides insight into some of the underlying variables that my be responsible for the lack of commitment in areas of education, career planning, and lifestyle choices.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The selected research tools will be used to quantitatively address the following research questions: (1) Is there a difference between the Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task of African-American students enrolled in ROTC and African-American student not enrolled in College ROTC?; (2) Is there a difference between the Developing Autonomy Task of African-American student enrolled in ROTC and African-American student not enrolled in College ROTC?; (3) Is there a difference between the Mature Interpersonal Relationships Task of African-American students enrolled in ROTC and African-American student not enrolled in College ROTC?; and (4) Does the College Senior Army ROTC program significantly impact the development of African-American students?

HYPOTHESES

The hypotheses in this study include: (1) There will be significant difference between the impact of Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task Development of African-American students enrolled in ROTC and African-American student not enrolled in College ROTC; (2) There will be no significant differences between the Developing Autonomy Task Development of African-American students enrolled in ROTC and African-American students not enrolled in College ROTC; (3) There will be no significant differences between the Mature Interpersonal Relationships Task Development tools of African-American students enrolled in ROTC and African-American student not enrolled in College ROTC; and (4) Enrollment in college Senior Army ROTC significantly improves the development of students?

ATTITUDE and BEHAVIOR DEVELOPMENTAL TASK NEEDED to ASSIST African-American COLLEGE STUDENTS WITH DEVELOPING a CLEAR COMMITMENT to SUCCEED AFTER COLLEGE

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

The work of Burt and Halpin (1998): entitled: "African-American Identity Development: A Review of the Literature" states: "The concept of identity and identity development was initially presented by Sigmund Freud, who referred to identity or 'inner identity'...[as] an individual's link with the unique values, fostered by a unique history of his people." (Erikson, 1959, p. 102; as cited in Burt and Halpin, 1987) the first to introduce the social and historical dynamics of personal development was Freud who held that" identity is the integration of the individual of an individual within the group as well as how he/she interacts with other groups. Based upon Freud's theory of ego development and Hartmann's adaptation theory, psychosocial theorists Erik H. Erikson further examined the concept of ego identity development. (Erickson, 1959 as cited in Burt and Halpin, 1987) the work of Marcia (1966, 1980) built upon Erikson's stage identity approach and while Marcia viewed identity as "an existential position to an inner organization of needs, abilities, and self-perceptions as well as to socio-political stance" (Marcia, 1980) "Marcia (1980) did not see identity as something that was achieved or attainted, but rather as a dynamic and ongoing process drive by a series of crises in an individual's life in which physical development, cognitive growth and social expectations coincide to enable a young person to sort through and synthesize their childhood identifications in order to construct a viable pathway toward their adulthood." (Halpin and Burt, 1998) Marcia states that "Ego and identity diffusion refer to polar outcomes of the hypothesized psychosocial crisis occurring in late adolescence." (1966) Halpin and Burt state that Marcia holds that "crises are not defined as tragedies or misfortunes, but are rather the decisions of commitments that adolescents make during this significant period of human development. Whether or not an adolescent leaves the industry stage with a health confidence in his or her abilities and specific vocational skills will carry the individual into the next stage of his or her life." (Marcia, 1980; as cited in Halpin and Burt, 1998) the work of Marcia (1966, 1980) makes a proposal concerning measures for capturing the development of identity as a series of psychosocial tasks. Four identity statuses are proposed by Marcia "within which adolescents have committed to vocational, spiritual, sexual, moral and other social dilemmas. The identity diffusion status is characterized by individuals demonstrating a "lack of commitment ability or lack the desire to make decisions, opting instead to do nothing or let life happen, as it comes. The third status of Marcia's identity statuses is the foreclosed status. Much like the identity-diffused individuals, foreclosed adolescents do not make commitments and tend to shy away from dealing with crises. Unlike the diffusion status, moratorium individuals actively allow, or look to significant others to control experiences or decisions." (Halpin and Burt, 1998) the work of DuBois (1903) entitled: "The Souls of Black Folks" provides a description of the African-American experience as being "hindered in their natural movement, expression, and development. DuBois is also stated to have introduced the concept of "dual consciousness or double identity, equating the African-American identity with a… [END OF PREVIEW]

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