Autism in Children and Adults of AUSTRALIA1 Essay

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Description/definition of condition (onset and course)


Epidemiology of Autism



Neuroanatomical changes

Management, intervention and rehabilitation of condition

Neurological syndromes are illnesses of the peripheral and central nervous system. Autism is considered to be a part of this neurological syndrome that involves developmental disability. This disability shows up in children as part of their first three years of life. Research shows that Autism has been recognized as affecting the development of social and communication capabilities. Furthermore, the statistics show that about one in every five hundred children will more than likely be diagnosed with the Autism disorder. With that said, this essay will talk about the diagnosis, treatment incidence/prevalence, operationalization/classifications and neuropathology of autism.

Description/definition of condition (onset and course)

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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) denotes to a group of complex neurodevelopment conditions described by repetitive and characteristic patterns of behavior and problems with social interaction and communication. For example, hardships in social communication, nonverbal and verbal communication and behaviors that are monotonous. According to the DSM-5 diagnostic handbook, every type of autism condition has been merged into one collection analysis of ASD. Beforehand, they were acknowledged as different subtypes, as well as autistic syndrome, infantile disintegrative syndrome, prevalent developmental complaint-not otherwise stated (PDD-NOS) and Asperger disorder (Cadogan, 2015).


Essay on Autism in Children and Adults of AUSTRALIA1 Assignment

The onset of autism takes place in one of two designs. The first prototype, involves children showing abnormalities that occur in communicative and social development. This takes place in the first year of the child's life. However, the most typical initial symptom documented by parents is overdue speech increase (Lydon, 2015). Nevertheless, a growing body of literature proposes that social and nonverbal communicative delays go before the language abnormalities that normally lead to analysis.

In the second phase of onset, children look normal for the first year or two. By the time it gets to the second year of life, they lose all of skills that they had learned earlier. Further research shows that there has been much discussion about the early course of autism. Especially, the earliest age at which autism could be noticed. At this moment in time, scientific evidence proposes that autism is dominantly hereditary, and so researchers expect that there could possibly be early signs of autism even when they are babies. By tradition, nevertheless, autism is not diagnosed until age 2-3. This is normally the time when parents bring their children to medical attention. It is also the time when signs are detected on routine doctor visits or in day-care.

There are a few studies that mention that the condition can be discovered before the child's first birthday (Autism Spectrum Australia, 2016). Past studies utilizing home movies have displayed that signs of autism can be detected between 8-12 months. A study looking at head perimeter found statistical differences before 12 months. A study looking at movements discovered differences during 4-6 months. With that said, it seems the agreement of current evidence is that detectable signs of autism are noticed around 6-12 months. However, this particular study does not support discovery previous to 6 months, but other studies do propose this could be likely.


Research shows that more children could present with a regressive course of autism than previously thought. However, parent's report approaches do not capture this occurrence that good. Parents sometimes remember certain warning signs earlier in the course of the second and sometimes the first year of life (Lord, 2012). The regressive course wherein parents witness the damage of developmental skills after normal or abnormal development, normally takes place in the second year of life (Landa, 2011). Following the regression, very few regain normal development (Cox, 2011). A percentage (43%) of the children who were described to have loss of abilities were also documented to have higher rate of warning sign at a younger age (10-12). (Cadogan, 2015).

Epidemiology of Autism

The Epidemiology of autism is the analysis of influences having an affect on autism spectrum disorders. Statistics show that a 2012 review of worldwide prevalence assesses of autism spectrum syndromes discovered a median of 72 cases per 9,000 individuals (Lord, 2012). However, there is a lack of data from low- and middle-revenue nations though.


The amount of individuals who are diagnosed with autism spectrum syndrome is on the rise in Australia. One in 68 children have an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a 30% increase from 1 in 88 two years ago (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). The Australian Bureau of Statistics described huge growth in the amount of individuals with autism with statistics that was gathered in 2009 and then again collected in 2012. A prevalence study done in 2008 determined that one in 190 Australian children that are aged around 6 and 12 years suffer from some type of Autism Spectrum Condition (Australian Advisory Board on Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2007) -- that is over 30,000 Australian kids in that age area. However, some current studies make the suggestion that these facts could very well be somewhere around 1:100 in the country (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014).


The most current description of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders style 5 (DSM-5) has only a sole group for the analysis of an autistic disorder-- autism spectrum disorders, which consist of the succeeding conditions that were beforehand diagnosed as individual conditions:

Autistic disorder. This is when kids have problems with social communications, and creative play and usually can see the warning signs in those below the age of three.

Asperger's syndrome. Those that are in this category do not have any types of language difficulties. In truth, they have a custom of scoring in the average or above-average assortment on intellect tests. But then again these children tend to have the same social difficulties and restricted scope of welfares as children that are suffering from autistic condition.

Pervasive developmental disorder. Refers to disorders that include delays in the development of several basic skills. Most noteworthy among them are the capability to mingle with others

Ret syndrome. Those children that suffer with Rett syndrome, mainly girls, start acquiring as anticipated but then start losing their communication and social skills. Beginning at the age of 1 to 4 years, repeated hand movements substitute persistent usage of their hands. Research shows that children that suffer with Rett syndrome are most of the time severely cognitively damaged.

Neuroanatomical changes

MRI studies have constantly discovered increases in brain size in younger children with autism followed by an abnormal growth pattern through teenage years (Katzman, 2012). What does this say in regards to the neuropathology of autism? Part of what it is saying is that the brain is larger, and that there are too many neurons, glia, synapses and so on. On the other hand, the increase in cerebellar volume is usually relative to over-all brain capacity, with one exception in which the difference surpassed that of the cerebrum (Katzman, 2012). Research shows that the amygdala in 8- to 18-year-old boys have an altered developmental time course. In this age group, the amygdala was inflated by 17% in 8- to 12-year-old boys with autism but did not vary in 13- to 18-year-old youngsters. Although the amygdala in developing boys enlarged in magnitude by 60% from 8 to 18 years of old (Cox, 2011). The similar growth course did not take place in the boys with autism.

Management, intervention and rehabilitation of condition

Medicines for dealing with autism are best utilized in mixture with counseling or other behavioral interferences. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not accepted any medicine specifically for the action of anxiety in individuals with autism. Cognitive behavioral therapy joined with social skills training has proven positive in decreasing autism especially in teens and adults that are suffering from autism Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is used… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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