Capstone Project: Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Style

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[. . .] (2004).

Another factor that is impossible to control given the structure of this study is the fact that there are multiple coaches involved and every coach is different. How they control and pose situations is going differ from person to person, as noted by Stevens (2012). Perhaps it would not be wide enough of a sample to look at one team in one sport and with coach, but it would indeed eliminate most of the challenges in getting a true "apples to apples" argument as there would only be one sport, one gender, one coach and so on. However, there would only be one outcome to look at and the dynamics of the team may make that troublesome. A player dominating the handling of the ball on a basketball or soccer team would make measurement difficult as not much would change, in all likelihood, when the variable in question supposedly changes.

As such, measuring sports teams dynamic like the coaching sytle and its effects can be hard to measure and quantify just like it would be when looking at businesses but a large enough sample would probably be enough to overcome that. However, doing a full focus group and survey on a large swath of people in many different teams and situations would create issues of its own. As such, perhaps a smaller sample that is focused on men only or women only (or at least parses out the results of each separately) would be wise in addition to keeping the two groups as homogenous as possible beyond the variable that is being looked at. Beyond that, avoiding situations where a star player or something else that would skew results and perceptions of teammates would be wise as well.

Chapter V - Conclusion

In the end, this research was a learning experience. Even though the answer garnered was not expected and what the researcher thought would be found, the "final answer" is still probably out there and may very well be different than the outcome of this survey and study. Further research can and should be done on this and the level of analysis as well as the control of variables should be reined in and controlled much better than what was done by the author of this report. Even so, this study could really have been an indication of what is to come with future results but the overall execution of this study was solid. Controlling the sample and spreading out the results should yield a much more definitive outcome overall.

Appendix I -- Survey Release

I am conducting a survey about autonomy-supportive coaching strategies in team sports. This survey is being administered as part of a required research assignment for the Communication Studies Method course (COS 353). Your responses will be kept anonymous and confidential. By responding to this survey you are consenting to voluntarily participate in this survey. I am very grateful for your participation. It is because of people like you that I am able to conduct this study. Thank you.

Appendix II -- Survey Sheet

Athlete Survey

Please answer the following questions.1

1. What year are you in college?

a) Freshman

b) Sophomore

c) Junior

d) Senior

2. What is your gender? a) Male

b) Female

3. What is your age?

4. What sport do you play?

a) Basketball

b) Tennis

c) Hockey

d) Soccer

e) Football

5.

How long have you been playing your current sport?

The following questions resemble team communication in sports. Each coach has a different coaching style and that no one style is necessarily better than another. Think about your most current coaching/team experience. Please indicate how much you agree or disagree with each statement. The scale provided is from 1 (Strong Disagree) to 7 (Strongly Agree). Please answer them honestly about how you feel, pertaining to your own team sport.

Not at all true

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Very true

1. My coaches offer me choices about what we do in practice. AI 1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Not at all true

Very true

2. My coaches praise me for the things I choose to do in practice. AB1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Not at all true

Very true

3. My coaches ask for the team's opinion about what we should do in practice. AI 2

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Not at all true

Very true

4. My coaches praise me for the things I do in practice. AB2

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Not at all true

Very true

5. My coaches ask for my opinion about what we should do in practice.AI3

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Not at all true

Very true

6. My coaches praise me for my attitude during practice. AB3

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Not at all true

Very true

7. My coaches listen to what the team thinks we should do in practice. AI4

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Not at all true

Very true

8. My coaches praise me for my effort during practice. AB4

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Not at all true

Very true

9. My coaches listen to what I think I should do in practice. AI5

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Not at all true

Very true

Each of the following items describes a specific situation that you may encounter in your training and competition. Please circle how frequently these situations apply to you on the following 1-5 scale, ranging from Never to Always.

Never

Always

1. I set realistic but challenging goals for myself.1

2

3

4

5

Goal setting 1

2. I say things to myself to help my practice

1

2

3

4

5 performances. Self-talk 1

3. During practice I visualize successful past

1

2

3

4

5

performances. Imagery 1

4. I set goals to help me use practice time

1

2

3

4

5

effectively. Goal setting 2

5. I practice relaxation techniques at workouts.

1

2

3

4

5

Relaxation 1

6. I practice a way to relax.

1

2

3

4

5

Relaxation 2

7. During competition I set specific goals

1

2

3

4

5

for myself. Goal setting 3

8. When the pressure is on at competitions

1

2

3

4

5

I know how to relax. Relaxation 3

9. My self-talk during competition is negative.

1

2

3

4

5

Negative thinking 1

10. During practice, I don't think about

1

2

3

4

5

performing much I just let it happen. Automaticity 1

11. I perform at competitions without

1

2

3

4

5

consciously thinking about it. Automaticity 2

12. I rehearse my performance in my mind

1

2

3

4

5

before competition. Imagery 2

13. I can raise my energy level at competitions

1

2

3

4

5

when necessary. Activation 1 (AT)

14. During competition I have thoughts of failure.

1

2

3

4

5

Negative thinking 2

15. During competition I perform on

1

2

3

4

5

"automatic pilot" Automaticity 3

16. I manage my self-talk effectively during

1

2

3

4

5

practice. Self-talk 2

17. I motivate myself to train through positive

1

2

3

4

5

self-talk. Self-talk 3

18. I rehearse my performance in my mind

1

2

3

4

5

at competitions. Imagery 3

19. I am able to control distracting thoughts

1

2

3

4

5

while I am training. Emotional control 1

20. I get frustrated and emotionally upset when

1

2

3

4

5

practice does not go well. Emotional control 2

21. I imagine screwing up during competition

1

2

3

4

5

Negative thinking 3

22. I can increase my energy level to just the

1

2

3

4

5

right level for performance. Activation (AT) 2

23. My… [END OF PREVIEW]

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