Research Paper: Aviation Security Necessity of a Security Proof

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Aviation Security

Necessity of a security proof state-of-art airport system

United States of America holds a specific position that connects it with the global transportation network by various seaports, airports, highways, pipelines, railroads and waterways that are used to transport people and good in and out of U.S.. It is very important for the Aviation industry in U.S. To promote such a system that will ensure easy, efficient and reliable transportation of people, products and services across borders, while it is also necessary to provide a protective filter for the aviation transportation system against entry or exit of any person or product that is meant to promote terrorist activities. A primary duty of U.S. authorities is to ensure the protection of U.S. citizens, infrastructure and other interests against the dangers from the air domain. After the incidence of 9/11, it has also been proved that the air domain is uniquely susceptible to exploitation by terrorist groups and criminals ("National Strategy for Aviation Security," 2007).

The Federal government of U.S. has been significantly strengthening the security of aviation sector while putting up endeavors along with state, local, and tribal governments, the international community, and the private sector. The motive of the combination of these forces is to implement a broad range of aviation security measures through innovative initiatives and by leveraging pre-existing capabilities to provide the nation with an active, layered aviation security, and defense in-depth. Such measures include:

A federalized transportation security officer workforce that screens passengers and baggage traveling on passenger aircraft;

Hardened cockpit doors to prevent unauthorized access to the flight deck;

Federal air marshals who fly anonymously on commercial passenger aircraft to provide a law enforcement presence;

'Threat detection technology' and explosives used in several airports; 'air traffic management' and 'airspace security' methods;

"A team consisting of canine explosives detection for screening cargo, baggage as well as carry-on items." ("National Strategy for Aviation Security," 2007).

Apart from that some of the other security measures that have been include proper training for thousands of pilots that voluntarily participate in the 'Federal Flight Deck Officer' program, which permits trained pilots to carry firearms; flight attendants and other flight crew members who have voluntarily applied for the "Transportation Security Administration's -- TSA Advanced Flight Crew Self-Defense' course; federal, state, local, and tribal law enforcement officers that voluntarily travel armed to provide protection as an extension of their normal duties, establishment of a program to collect and analyze suspicious events; efforts to streamline operational coordination on incidents both in the air and on the ground; daily vetting of thousands of crew members and passengers on flights to and from the United States; and improvement of surveillance and intelligence sharing" ("National Strategy for Aviation Security," 2007).

Integrating security with the design and plan of Airport Layout and Boundaries

With the trend of globally interconnected economy, it is very important for the authorities to promote safe and unhindered movement of passengers and cargo across the nations so that the pace of free trade and advancement of freedom and prosperity may not suffer. While integrating the security needs and provisions into airport planning, design or major renovation, the initial step is to analysis and determination of the airport's general security requirements, layout and boundaries.

The general layout of an airport includes three areas namely airside, landside and terminal. The terminal area often lies on the boundaries of airside or landside because it uses the basic and specific requirements applicable for the airport terminal. The security system and security personals are often integrated with the terminal of the airport.

Airside

The airside of the airport need to be non-public and it is generally beyond security screening stations and restricting parameters. The airside includes runways, taxiways, aprons, aircraft parking and staging areas and most facilities which service and maintain aircraft. To provide safety measures, security reasons and operational benefits tenant and cargo and some other facilities may be located within the airside as well. (Aviation transportation System Security Plan, 2007)

The boundaries and barriers of the airside will be determined on the basis of proper consideration on the following points:

Dangerous or hazardous areas that could affect the safety or security of a parked or moving aircraft;

Concealed/overgrown areas that could hide persons or objects that might endanger aircraft or critical airport systems;

Adjacent facilities having their own security concerns and provisions, e.g., correctional, military or other facilities that could affect or be affected by the proximity of airside operations;

Natural features, large metal structures/buildings or electronics facilities that might affect ground or aircraft communications or navigational systems; it is necessary because the limitations of communications may endanger not only aircraft and airport personnel safety, but also limit security response capabilities and information availability during emergency as well as routine situations.

Adjacent schools, hotels, parks or community facilities that might affect or be affected by the proximity of aircraft and the related safety and security concerns. (Aviation transportation System Security Plan, 2007)

The airport airside area would be able to provide and maintain proper operational clear areas, it will have adequate emergency response routes and response times, and it will include in-place required safety measures (Transportation Security Administration, 2006).

Landside

The landside of an airport is that area and buildings that can be accessed by travelers and visitors without any hindrance or restriction. The landside area include patron and other public parking areas, public access roadways, rental car facilities, taxi and ground transportation staging areas, and any on-airport hotel facilities. In fact, the terminals are also a part of landside; yet, terminal is properly sealed and secured. The landside is not directly affected by the operation of aircrafts and that is why it doesn't require that much highly stringent security measures as are required by airside or terminals. Yet, some parts and areas of the landside may prove to be of operational importance of the airside and hence certain measures of protection are provided on the landside too. The level of protection and security cover on landside meets with the standards of the jurisdiction of the area in which the airport is situated (Transportation Security Administration, 2006).

Terminal

The terminal of an airport is that area or building where the boarding of public, scheduled commercial aircraft occurs or from which persons who have passed through a security screening process will proceed to boarding facilities located elsewhere on the airside. Terminal is provided with most security, safety, and operational requirements. Most of the security areas remain within the terminal or nearby it. The terminal is centrally located between the airside and landside on the airport site so that it may provide aircraft access to most runways and facilities; in addition it enhances the security of terminal too.

Since the central position of terminal provides maximum possible distance from outside airport threats, it is the best position to be chosen for the layout of terminal. The key feature of the design is the total realignment of passenger circulation within an operating facility. A sweeping spacious facility is provide for ticket lobby area, a continuous ticketing hall is shared by all of the airlines in order to maximize usage and flexibility, while permitting each airline to insert proprietary equipment. The terminal is a designed facility that maximizes user comfort and convenience. It includes a dramatic sky-lit public space, spacious hold-rooms, a 300 seat public food court, and a variety of retail services ("Aviation Projects: Bodouva, Architects and Planners," n. d.).

The airport plan is designed in accordance with the 'Aviation Transportation System Security Plan' that directs a risk-based approach to developing and implementing measures to reduce vulnerabilities within the 'Aviation Transportation System.' The plan also support 'Aviation Operational Threat Response Plan' which prescribes comprehensive and coordinated protocols to assure an effective and efficient United States government response to air threats against the nation and its interests. Along with that, the plan is well maintained to maintain the 'Aviation Transportation System Recovery Plan' defines a suite of strategies to mitigate the operational and economic effects of an attack in the air domain, as well as measures that will enable the 'Aviation Transportation System' and other affected critical government and private sector aviation-related elements to recover from such an attack as rapidly as possible (Aviation transportation System Security Plan, 2007).

Apart from that, the design of the airport was planned in a way to integrate the following national plans for aviation security that includes:

'The Air Domain Surveillance and Intelligence Integration Plan' which coordinates requirements, priorities, and implementation of national air surveillance resources and the means to share this information with appropriate stakeholders.

'The International Aviation Threat Reduction Plan' that details U.S. international activities to counter illicit acquisition and use by terrorists, other criminals, and other hostile individuals or groups of stand-off weapons systems that pose the most significant threats to lawful civilian and military use of the air domain.

'The Domestic Outreach Plan' which ensures stakeholder participation in the implementation of the supporting plans and related aviation security policies and… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Aviation Security Necessity of a Security Proof.  (2010, July 28).  Retrieved July 17, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/aviation-security-necessity/7663779

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