Project Management Essay

Pages: 8 (2617 words)  ·  Style: Harvard  ·  Bibliography Sources: 15  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Business - Management


The analysis also assists the project manager to build stakeholder's relationships at different stage of the project lifecycle. (Heerkens, 2002). The project manager can use various model for stakeholder analysis and these include:

The power/interest model, which can be used to group stakeholders based on their level of concern and authority regarding the project outcome. Power/influence model group stakeholders based on their level of involvement in project and their level of authority. Influence/impact model group the stakeholders based on their power to effect project changes and their active involvement in the project. Salience model describes stakeholders based on the ability and power to impose the decision on the issues that require urgent attentions. (Larson & Gray, 2011).

Moreover, the project manager must devise an expert judgment to decide which stage of the project lifecycle each stakeholder should be involved. For example, the senior stakeholders must be involved at the beginning of the project to remove all obstacles that may influence the project. The next step is to engage other stakeholders and sought for expert opinion from other stakeholders. Meanwhile, the project manager should design appropriate engagement plan and communicate appropriate project procedures to the stakeholders in order to meet their expectations.

Communication Plan

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The part one of the project identifies ineffective communication as one of the factors leading to a project failure. This study recommends an effective project communication plan to guide against project failure. Planning for the project communication is very critical to achieve a project success, and inadequate flow of information among stakeholders can lead to several problems such as a delay in delivering message, misinterpretation of the message and communicating the project information to a wrong person. (Larson & Gray, 2011).

TOPIC: Essay on Project Management the Part One Assignment

A robust communication plan can go a long way to mitigate against project problems. A robust communication plan assists team members, customers as well as other stakeholders to have required information to carry out their jobs effectively. Thus, this study suggests the integration of a project communication management in the project lifecycle to guide against a project failure. Communication management is the process of ensuring timely retrieval and distribution of project information among the project's stakeholders. In the project lifecycle, the project managers spend most of their time communicating to stakeholders and team members about the project outcomes Thus, effective communication bridge the gaps among stakeholders and remove any conflict that could have emanated due to stakeholders' cultural different backgrounds. (Field, & Keller 2007).

Larson et al. (2011) argue that project communication plan is an important tool that assists the project manager to coordinate project stakeholders as well as tracking project schedule. "The essence of a project communication plan is to express what, who, how, and when information will be transmitted to project stakeholders so schedules, issues, and action items can be tracked." (Larson et al. 2011 p 19). However, effective communication method is still essential for sharing information among stakeholders. Suggested methods of project communication include:

Interactive communication: An interactive communication is the most efficient and effective method of communication to assist all participants to understand specific information about the project. Tools for carrying out the interactive communication include phone calls, instant messaging, video conferencing, and meeting.

Push communication: A push communication is a communication tool to ensure that specific recipients receive necessary information distributed, and the information is actually received and understood by the audience. Examples of push communication include memos, letters, emails, reports, voice email and faxes. (Cooks, 2002).

Pull communication: A pull communication assists the project manager to communicate information to a large number of people; however, the stakeholders may decide to receive communication at their own discretion. This type of communication method includes lessons learned from databases, e-learning, intranet sites and knowledge repositories. Generally, the stakeholders agree upon the effective communication method to use in disseminating and receiving information. (Project Management Institute, 2013). Fig 2 provides the examples of project communication strategies that a project manager can use to guide against project failures.

Fig 2: Sample Communication Plan


The factors responsible for project failures include inefficient planning, lack of effective communication among project stakeholders and inefficient stakeholder's management. All these issues can lead to a project failure if not properly managed. (Larson et al. 2011). Planning is an effective tool that the project manager can use to prevent a project's failure and arriving at a project objective. One of the planning methodologies is to use the Gantt chart to assign costs and time to each of the project tasks. Using this strategy, the project manager will be able to manage project based on cost and time.

The stakeholder's management is also very critical in the Project Management because influence of the stakeholders is vey important in the project outcomes. It is the responsibility of the project manager to manage all the stakeholders to achieve the project success. Risk management is another technique identified to achieve project success. Risk management technique includes risk avoidance, risk transfer and risk response goes a long way in enhancing a project success.

The study also identifies the project communication plan as an effective method that the project manager can use to avoid a project's failure. Free flow of information among the project stakeholders and the project team will assist the project manager in reducing the project conflicts and achieving a project success.


The study recommends the strategies that the project manager can use to militate against a project failure. Some of the strategies include an effective communication plan, risk management plan and stakeholder management plan. Implementing this recommendation will assist the project manager to achieve a project success.


Field, M., & Keller, L. (2007). Project management. London: Thomson Learning. Heerkens,

G.R. (2002). Project Management. New York. McGraw-Hill.

International Standards Organization. (2012). ISO 21500:2012 Guidance on Project Management. Geneva, Switzerland: ISO.

Koehle, T.C. (1983). Project Planning and Management Technique. Public Administration Review, 43 ( 5): 459-466.

Lam, J. (2003. Enterprise Risk management: From Incentives to Controls. (First edition) new York Wiley.

Larson E.W. & Gray, C.R. (2011). Project Management: the Managerial Process.(5th Edition). New York. McGraw-Hill International.

Lewis R.I. (2006) Project Management. McGraw-Hill Professional.

Melton, T. (2009). Perfect project management and planning. Process & Control Engineering (PACE). 62 (9): 42-42

PMIS (2013). Hints and Tips for Managing Projects. PMIS Consulting Limited.

Project Management Institute (2013). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (Fifth Edition). Project Management Journal.

Project Management Institute. 2013. Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3) (Third Edition). Newtown Square, PA: PMI.

Shelmerdine, E.K. (1989). Planning For Project Management. Journal of Systems Management; 40 (1): 16.

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How to Cite "Project Management" Essay in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Project Management.  (2014, April 28).  Retrieved September 23, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Project Management."  28 April 2014.  Web.  23 September 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Project Management."  April 28, 2014.  Accessed September 23, 2021.