Basal Ganglia the Control Research Paper

Pages: 3 (926 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 3  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Disease


The only accepted treatment for early stage disease is L-dopa, which is a dopamine precursor capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Unfortunately, the side-effects can be debilitating and its use is therefore limited and no treatment currently exists for the more advanced stages of disease.

Parkinson's patients reveal cognitive deficits similar to those found in patients with Huntington's disease (reviewed by Stocco, Lebiere, and Anderson, 2010). These include nondeclaritive and working memory deficits, although L-dopa administration can improve working memory. When Parkinson's patients with mild to moderate disease were challenged with a probabilistic category task, they performed significantly worse than healthy controls (Shohamy, Myers, Onlaor, and Gluck, 2004). Performance improved over time for both patients and controls, but patients always performed worse in the task; however, on the first of three days of testing the difference was not statistically significant. The authors discovered that the learning strategies employed by patients and controls were essentially the same on the first day, but only the controls began to rely on a more complex strategy during the next two days of testing. Parkinson's patients were therefore unable to acquire a multi-cue strategy required for optimal performance on the task and continued to rely on a single-cue strategy.Download full Download Microsoft Word File
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TOPIC: Research Paper on Basal Ganglia the Control of Assignment

People who suffer basal ganglia brain lesions will experience some of the same deficits. Rieger and colleagues (2003) evaluated non-Parkinson's and non-Huntington's patients with frontal, non-frontal, and basal ganglia lesions using neuropsychiatric tests and a stop-signal test. When compared to healthy controls, the patients with basal ganglia lesions performed significantly worse on the intellectual functioning test, which included verbal comprehension, reasoning, word fluency, space, field dependence, and closure. Patients with frontal or basal ganglia lesions also performed significantly worse on a verbal learning and memory test. When the stop-signal reaction times were assessed, patients with frontal or basal ganglia lesions performed significantly worse. These findings reveal significant cognitive and motor response inhibition deficits in patients with basal ganglia lesions.


Whether the damage or dysfunction comes from environmental toxins, genetic inheritance, or physical trauma, the basal ganglia have been shown to be important for a number of essential cognitive tasks, including motor response inhibition. Unfortunately for patients, adequate treatments are still in the future, although a few drugs are providing measurable relief.


Rieger, Martina, Gauggel, Siegfied, and Burmeister, Katja. (2003). Neuropsychology, 17(2), 272-282.

Shohamy, D., Myers, C.E., Onlaor, S., and Gluck, M.A. (2004). Role of the basal ganglia in category learning: How do patients with Parkinson's disease learn? Behavioral Neuroscience, 118(4), 676-686.

Stocco, Andrea, Lebiere, Christian, and Anderson, John R. (2010). Conditional routing of information to the cortex: A model of the basal ganglia's role in cognitive coordination. Psychological Review, 117(2), 541-574.

Wilson, Josephine F. (2013). Biological… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Basal Ganglia the Control" Research Paper in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Basal Ganglia the Control.  (2013, October 14).  Retrieved July 30, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Basal Ganglia the Control."  14 October 2013.  Web.  30 July 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Basal Ganglia the Control."  October 14, 2013.  Accessed July 30, 2021.