# Bias OccursResearch Paper

Pages: 4 (1015 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Sociology

¶ … bias occurs when a sampling method does not include all subpopulations in proportion to their occurrence and so requires accurate sampling to reduce it.

A sampling error occurs when one section of a population is not weighted properly in terms of its overall portion of the whole population. An accurate assessment of its portion reduces sampling error and thus provides a much more accurate basis for any statistical analysis.

Non-sampling error is any mistake that arises by other means; for example, the use of the wrong statistical model would result in a non-sampling error. Estimation of expected outcomes may help reduce non-sampling errors by providing a baseline of what a reasonable result will be.

Simple random sampling is best used with a relatively undifferentiated population whose frame is known. It is not useful for highly differentiated samples or those for whom the parameters of the population cannot be easily determined.

A systematic sampling method should be used when every element of a population is both known and has an equal chance (i.e. probability) of being selected. It is conceptually equivalent to a simple random sampling strategy except that it is more useful in those cases when there is greater variance occurring with the systematic sample being examined than variance within the framed population as a whole.

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6. Stratified Random Sampling is an excellent strategy to use when there are a number of subpopulations with different frequencies of occurrence that the experimenter wants to weight in proportion to their overall incidence in the population.

7. Sample size is determined by the size of the whole population, by the number of subpopulations, by the experimental questions being asked, by the required or desired accuracy of the experiment, and by practical restraints such as time and money. All of these affect sample quality.

Surveys

## Research Paper on Bias Occurs When a Sampling Assignment

1. Planning and conducting a survey requires one to decide 1) What topic is to be surveyed; 2) what population is to be surveyed; 3) how (in mechanical terms) the survey will be distributed and collected; 4) how the survey's results will be analysed; ) how the survey results will be used

2. Mailed surveys are inexpensive to conduct; however, they have very low response rates and they are also likely to have less honest answers as subjects are far removed from the process.

3. An internet survey is even less expensive than a mail survey. However it too is likely to have a low-response rate and a low level of accuracy. In addition, it requires access to and familiarity with computers, which would tend to exclude older and poorer people.

4. Telephone surveys are relatively inexpensive and have a higher response rate and a higher accuracy rate then the above two methods. However, they require (in most cases) that an individual have a land-line, something that many younger people are unlikely to do. It also requires that the interviewer and the subject share at least one language.

5. Random digit dialing increases the chance of a survey that is more likely to reflect… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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