Essay: Biology Species D In Evolutionary

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SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] Microhabitats can, and often do, create rapid adaptive variation.

Part 10

A. The major limitations on the morphological concept of species is that there is often a large amount of phenotypic variability within a species; that organisms that can interbreed sometimes have different physical characteristics, and that it does not consider if individuals of a species can produce viable offspring. For biological concepts, many species do not reproduce sexually, and then are hard to apply to the biological concept since it emphasizes reproduction. In other words, in the biological concept, species are based not on physical similarity, but on fertility.

B. In this scenario, likely the morphological concept because the butterfly populations are distinct. In this manner, we could look at not just reproduction, but differences in body function, biochemistry, behavior and genetic make-up.

Part 11 - A clade is a group consisting of an ancestor and its decedents. Extinction rates can exceed speciation rates in clades based on a sharp change in diversity, climate, and habitat for a specific organism. This can be artificial (man-caused) or natural (weather, earthquakes, climate change, etc.). Certainly much of the basic mass extinctions are examples of this; 1) the Cretaceous-Paleocene Extinction Event about 65 million years ago in which 75% of all species became extinct; 2) the Triassic-Jurassic event about 200 million years ago when 70-75% of species became extinct. In #1, the boundary event was severe enough so that the majority of non-avian dinosaurs became extinct and mammals and birds emerged dominant; in #2 most non-dinosaurian archosaurs and large amphibians were eliminated, resulting is less terrestrial competition for the remaining species.

Part 12 -- You should check this with your text

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Part B. Species 3 and 5

Part C. Species 2, 4 and 5

Part 13 - In vitro evolution may not involve the cells and therefore the results can have larger mutations; Molecular evolution is at the RNA, DNA and protein scale based on cellular structures. In vitro evolution produces new molecules, molecular evolution new combinations.

Part 14 -- Between fossil and molecular evidence, I would side with the molecular evidence due to the reliability of science and genetic definitions as opposed to outside variables (temperature, strata, location, etc.) of the physical fossil evidence.

Part 15 --… [END OF PREVIEW]

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