Bioterrorism Biological Weapons Research Paper

Pages: 5 (1425 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Terrorism

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
The psychological aspect of both biological weaponry and terrorism is overlooked in this argument.

Preparedness is the one defense of biological weapons that can substantially neutralize the effects when this tactic is employed. The growing trend of fusing military interests with domestic interests are becoming more pronounced. As the U.S. moves to integrate biological weapons into its defense arsenal, it is the very nature of warfare, security and the military threat that is being rethought, at the interface between public health and security, the biotech industry and military research.[footnoteRef:6] [6: Melinda Cooper. "Pre-empting Emergence, The Biological Turn in the War on Terror. Theory, Culture & Society 2006. Vol 23, p.114. http://www.16beavergroup.org/drift/readings/pre-empting-emergence.pdf. Accessed 13 Jan, 2013.]

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A recent switch towards a more defensive in recent years, most largely due to the attacks of 9/11, as shown that an aggressive defensive towards biological attacks can be effective and ultimately efficient. In this scenario, the battlefield has expanded to everywhere that life is capable of living. Biological weapons force civilians to become key players within the battlefield. Civilians acting as de facto carriers of virus or bacteria are essentially being used coactively as a weapon themselves. This unique factor about biological weaponry sets it aside from other weapons of mass destruction because of the personal nature of the results and the forcing of civilians to become active on the battlefield. [footnoteRef:7] [7: Cooper. P.127. ]

Research Paper on Bioterrorism Biological Weapons Can Significantly Assignment

Some believe that "The United States has virtually no defense against a large-scale chemical or biological attack. Vaccines and antidotes are not stockpiled in anywhere near the quantities needed to provide adequate protection either to the public or to U.S. military units" (1982: 110). Douglass and Livingstone add: "...should such a [CB] attack occur, it is unlikely that it could be rapidly detected or that the specific agent would be expeditiously identified....Few police departments or civil defense units have standard U.S. military chemical agent detector kits or such things as detector paper and vesicant detector crayons." [footnoteRef:8] This is outdated thinking I believe and much has been learned since this time. [8: Ron Purver.. "Chemical and Biological Terrorism: The Threat According to the Open Literature. Security Intelligence Service June 1995. www. csis.gc.ca. Accessed on 13 Jan, 2013.]

The anthrax attacks on key institutions shortly after the 9-11 terrorist attacks displayed the psychological damage that can be done even when a biological weapon is half-heartedly employed. When biological weapons are employed, there is a risk of overreaction that can cause serious confusion resulting in poor decision making by those in leadership positions.[footnoteRef:9] " If authorities are not prepared in advance, they will be more susceptible to taking actions they [9: Stern, P.5.]

will later regret, such as revoking civil liberties."[footnoteRef:10] [10: Stern, P. 6.]

Conclusions

The battlefield is more complex in today's time than ever. While technology has created many beneficial allowances, a dark side of its uses can be exploited by terrorists when properly motivated. Biological warfare is a very potent and practical method of conducting warfare. Although the natural processes that seem to mend such pandemic threats, biological warfare when properly executed can be very devastating. The unique psychological side effects that result in this type of endeavor also contributes to the potency of this approach. Small instances of successful bio-terrorism can be impactful to say the least by its effects on the mind and the instant weaponization of human populations. Only through education and prevention techniques can institutions be prepared to meet these challenges head on and with confidence. Natural processes will ultimately fail unless leadership places and maintains a strict monitoring on the persistent and threatening posture that biological weaponry can bring to any battlefield, now or in the future.

Bibliography

"Biological Weapon." Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/938340/biological-weapon (accessed January 12, 2013).

Cooper, Melinda. "Pre-Empting Emergence, The Biological Turn in the War on Terror." Theory, Culture & Society 23(4) (2006), http://www.16beavergroup.org/drift/readings/pre- empting-emergence.pdf (accessed January 12, 2013).

DiGiovanni, Cleto. "Domestic Terrorism With Chemical or Biological Agents: Psychiatric Aspects." American Journal of Psychiatry 156 (199), http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleID=173732 (accessed January 12, 2013).

Kortepeter, Mark and Gerald Parker. "Potential Biological Weapons Threats." Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(4) (1999): 523-28.

Stern, Jessica. "The Prospect… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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