Term Paper: Black Markets and Their Results

Pages: 8 (2859 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Sports - Drugs  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] Countermeasures must continue to emphasize containment of material at the source in Russia and other countries. Once the material is illegally and surreptitiously removed from a storage area, the difficulty of intercepting it en route to foreign buyers increases dramatically. Nevertheless, interdiction efforts at international borders, between the original storage areas and the borders, and across transit countries can greatly complicate efforts, making life difficult for contraband mercenaries. Hence a layered defense, with strategies directed at every possible checkpoint in the trafficking routes of HEU and plutonium, is an essential ingredient of any program to secure nuclear materials (Schweitzer and Dorsch 64).

HUMAN TRAFFICKING

Probably one of the most dehumanizing and reprehensible of the black markets is the one that exists in human trafficking. There are black markets for babies, human organs, and even slavery - hard to believe in our modern times. Human trafficking is rampant around the world, from China to Russia and beyond.

For example, in Tengzhou, a mid-sized city in Shandong province, officials mobilized 1,000 public security personnel who, over a two-month period in 1991, "broke up 54 human-trafficking rings, captured 165 members and 22 chiefs, and exposed nine bases of operation," according to a provincial radio report (Gaylord and Gaylord 23).

Some countries believe that just punishment for certain crimes is slavery. Amazingly enough, in Ghana for example, certain criminals found guilty of homicide, adultery, or robbery, may be sold as slaves. "Such culprits who have been heedless of counsel and warnings or have repeated offenses more than three times risk being sold into slavery" (Ebbe et al. 55). This is not the same however as those who are sold into slavery against their wishes. Rings exist in Russia to kidnap young teenagers, and export them to Italy, where they are forced to work as prostitutes. This is common in many areas of the world. Others are hoping for a better life, and believe anything they are told to try and find their dreams. In China, for example,

The strong desire to move to the big cities and prosperous regions makes women in the rural and mountainous areas willing targets for the human traffickers. According to a report of the Xinhua News Agency's office in Xian, in two southern regions of Shanxi province (Hanchong and Ankong), of the 2,047 cases of abduction of women and children reported to the police in 1985 and 1986, 803 involved married women, 1,012 involved single young women, and 232 involved children. Many of these victims were sold to men to become their wives. This report noted trafficking in women has surfaced in more than twenty of China's provinces and autonomous regions. The problem is particularly rife in poor villages, mountains, and the remote rural areas of such provinces as Sichuan, Shandong, Hebei, Henan, and Shanxi (Ren 94).

Even worse is the practice of selling human organs on the black market. The law of supply and demand is clearly the reason this market even exists. There is a huge shortage of human organs available in the United States, and it is even worse in most other countries. People literally die waiting for an organ that could save them. If they have enough money, and the right connections, they can purchase an organ on the black market and hopefully the organ will be healthy, and they will live. Often, the organ "donors" are so desperate; they will gladly sell their organs for much needed cash. Others are lured by stories of jobs, and then killed for their organs.

The group Organ Watch is attempting to find the areas of the world where the practice is most prevalent, and stop it. "The group also wants to promote economic reforms to remove the financial pressures that can push the destitute to sell their organs. 'There need to be forms of credit in these slums which aren't as destructive to families and don't put people at high risk,' Cohen said" (Dornin).

The trafficking of babies is very similar to other areas of human trafficking. Couples unable to adopt children through traditional means are often desperate enough to adopt through black markets and traffickers. Sometimes the babies are legitimate orphans, but often families have sold them due to economic stress, or because they owe the traffickers money. Again, the supply of babies for adoption in the United States cannot meet the demand, and so people go to black markets for their needs. Couples may not know that they are receiving a stolen child, and may simply be desperate for a child of their own.

Trafficking in humans is the lowest form of black marketing, and must be stopped. As the group Organ Watch is with organ trafficking, the United Nations has vowed to study the problem of baby trafficking around the world and find a viable solution, and have drafted a number of articles to try to ensure the practice ends.

CONCLUSION

The black markets discussed in this paper are only a few of the black markets operating worldwide. They include foreign currency markets, electronics and technology, and just about any commodity that may be undersupplied and in high demand around the world. Black markets exist because of extreme need or want, and will continue until the need is met, or the item is no longer needed. In the case of drugs, making the drugs legal is one way to reduce the demand, and thus remove the need for a black market. Of course, the legalization of drugs brings up a whole other host of issues, including more addiction, more impairment while driving or working, and more health care costs. There are no easy answers when it comes to the question of black markets, and how to avoid them.

Regarding nuclear weapons, the material must be closely guarded, and every effort much be made to keep the material intact and in place. Strict enforcement and inspection could help to make sure that this material is safe, and stringent security checks for anyone even remotely near or involved with the material should be commonplace.

Human trafficking may be the most despicable of these black markets. The trafficking of children, slaves, and human organs is simply not to be tolerated on any level. The strictest enforcement and incarceration procedures should be developed to help ensure that these traffickers are caught, and unable to resume their activities. These people prey on the innocent, the desperate, and the uneducated, and must be stopped at all costs, and the same could be said for all who engage in black market activities. They must be stopped.

Works Cited

Backman, Jules. "Apparel Uptrading." Price Practices and Price Policies: Selected Writings. New York: Ronald Press Co., 1953. 633-637.

Cimbala, Stephen J. Nuclear Strategy in the Twenty-First Century. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000.

Dornin, Rusty. "Group Works for end to Desperate Practice of Organ Selling." CNN.com. 14 Nov. 1999. 15 Aug. 2002. http://www.cnn.com/ASIANOW/south/9911/14/organ.selling/

Ebbe, Obi N. Ignatius, et al. "Ghana (Posttraditional Nation-State)." Crime and Crime Control: A Global View. Ed. Gregg Barak. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000. 49-63.

Editors. "Inter-country Adoption in an International Perspective." New South Wales Law Reform Commission. 1994. 15 Aug. 2002. http://www.angelfire.com/or/originsnsw/icadopt.html

Gaylord, Mark S., and Mark S. Gaylord. "China (Developing Nation-State)." Crime and Crime Control: A Global View. Ed. Gregg Barak. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000. 13-28.

Marples, David R., and Young, Marilyn J., eds. Nuclear Energy and Security in the Former Soviet Union. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997.

Potter, William C. "Nuclear Smuggling from the Former Soviet Union." Nuclear Energy and Security in the Former Soviet Union. Eds. David R. Marples, and Marilyn J. Young. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997. 139-166.

Ren, Xin. "China." Prostitution: An International Handbook on Trends, Problems, and Policies. Ed. Nanette J. Davis. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. 87-103.

Schweitzer, Glenn E., and Carole C. Dorsch. Superterrorism: Assassins, Mobsters, and Weapons of Mass Destruction. New York: Plenum Trade, 1998.

Smith, Peter H., editor. Drug Policy in the… [END OF PREVIEW]

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