Blacks or African-American Groups Term Paper

Pages: 5 (1478 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 3  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Race


One concern about society has to do with health issues. The infant mortality rate for blacks in America is one of the highest in the world, higher than any industrialized country, and higher even than some third world countries. Black children in the 1-4 age range have mortality rates twice that of white children. Black teenagers have mortality rates 10 times that of whites, and homicide is a leading cause of death. Black adults have a mortality rate 30 to 40% more than whites. The death rates may have something to do with the fact that, percentage-wise, there are fewer blacks now in America than during slavery.

Inevitably, having the lowest paying jobs most Blacks are forced to live in the slums of the cities. Their poor housing and incomes help to breed crime and violence in their urban ghettos. Entire families of several persons, sometimes two or more families, are crowded into a single room amidst filth and fetid air

Employment and Education

The United States is the richest and most powerful country on the planet. But the racism remains an integral part of America. Blacks, together with the other racial minorities, remain the most exploited section of society, mostly employed in the lowest-paid and menial jobs. Despite all of the progress, a large percentage of blacks are being forced to live under conditions of mass poverty and oppression. Black youth are faced with daily harassment and intimidation by the police (Hacker, 1992).

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African-Americans throughout most of the 20th Century have been discriminated against in housing, education, employment, and politics. Separate, inferior school buildings existed for most of the century, and even today, adequate state support for Historically Black Colleges and Universities offer just small fraction of the opportunities for Blacks. The poverty among most of the black population is attributed to their lack of efforts rather than motivation and public supports.

TOPIC: Term Paper on Blacks or African-American Groups and Assignment

Employment discrimination against people of color was legal until quite recently. Black families were held back and White families advantaged at their expense. Folks born into poverty today, disproportionately African-American, don't have the same advantages that other Americans take for granted.

For much of this century, racial and ethnic minorities have confronted legal and social exclusion. African-Americans were segregated into low wage jobs, usually agricultural. Asian-Americans, who were forbidden by law from owning land, worked fields to which they could not hold title.

African-Americans, even if they are college-educated, worked as bellboys, porters and domestics, unless they could manage to get a scarce teaching position in the all-black school -- which was usually the only alternative to preaching, or perhaps working in the post office. In higher education, most African-Americans attend predominantly black colleges, many established by states as segregated institutions.

Equal employment opportunity in many trades is still far from a reality. The unions in these trades still have only about 1.6% minority group membership and they continue to engage in practices, including the granting of referral priorities to union members and to persons who have work experience under union contracts, which result in few Blacks being referred for employment. Similarly, unemployment rates for Blacks average approximately double those of Whites (for example, 6.0 per cent for Whites and 12.9 per cent for Blacks). In 1984, the hourly wage rate for Black men averaged 72 per cent of that of White men, and their annual earnings averaged 56 per cent of that for White men. For Black women, the corresponding figures, compared to White women, were 91.6 per cent of wage rates and 99.0 per cent of annual earnings. As of 1990, 8.5 per cent of Black persons aged 18-64 had received formal work-related training provided by an employer, compared to 11.5 per cent for comparable Whites. In the 1980s, the proportion of employed Black men in managerial and professional positions achieved the level that had prevailed for White men three decades earlier; for Black women, the corresponding lag compared to White women was two decades. Black persons represented 6.6 per cent of employment in managerial and professional occupations and 6.0 per cent of employment in the skilled construction crafts, while they accounted for 16.7 per cent of laborers and 17.3 per cent of non-supervisory service workers (Hacker, 1992).


Benzon, W.L. (1993). The Evolution of Narrative and the Self. Journal of Social and Evolutionary Systems, 16… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Blacks or African-American Groups" Term Paper in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Blacks or African-American Groups.  (2004, November 14).  Retrieved September 18, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Blacks or African-American Groups."  14 November 2004.  Web.  18 September 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Blacks or African-American Groups."  November 14, 2004.  Accessed September 18, 2021.