Bloodlines and Race Moslem Communities Essay

Pages: 2 (788 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 2  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Literature - Latin-American

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Essay on Bloodlines and Race Moslem Communities Assignment

George Reid Andrews is the chairperson and professor in the department of history, University of Pittsburgh. He did his PhD from University of Wisconsin in 1978, with specialization in racial changes, society and culture of Latin America. His famous publication, Afro-Latin America 1800-2000, discusses the descent of black Africans into the countries of Latin America and the throughout phase of the rise and abolition of slavery in these particular areas. Andrews also discussed the economic, social, political and cultural impacts of such events shaped by the African slaves who tried hard to get rid themselves out of this misery. They brought a racial change by indulging themselves into social activities and organizations, federal government services, politics and in other such activities which can entitle them a respectful and equal citizen of the society. He discussed 1930-2000 as an era of browning and blackening, by describing that by this time, there have been too much number of Africans in Latin America that the racial heritage get mixed. Countries like Venezuela, Cuba and Brazil were trying to cope with this problem by infusing whites so that the inheritance would not get transferred to someone inferior, blacks. But when this approach entirely failed out due to lack of systematic modernization, the new national identities of Latin America started treating the existing heritage and racial mixing as "the essence of being Latin American." This phenomenon was termed as cultural browning by Andrews. During this time, the mixing of blacks in Afro-Latin American culture as a part of social circle and professionals which was initially disregarded and condemned was now nationally accepted and this provoked the emergence of several new black social movements which eventually led the continent towards blackening. The movements were mostly led by socially inferior poor blacks, who were deprived of a respectable social position despite of their skills and professionalism. Such movements were not only useful for them, as they achieved the goal by achieving dignity and identification for them, but also led towards the milestone for the racial changes in the continent and finally for the independence and abolition of slavery (Andrews 2004).


Andrews, George Reid. 2004. Afro-Latin America, 1800-2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lewis, Bernard. 1990. Race and slavery in the Middle East: an historical enquiry.… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Bloodlines and Race Moslem Communities" Essay in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Bloodlines and Race Moslem Communities.  (2012, July 21).  Retrieved February 28, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Bloodlines and Race Moslem Communities."  21 July 2012.  Web.  28 February 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Bloodlines and Race Moslem Communities."  July 21, 2012.  Accessed February 28, 2021.