Term Paper: Boron Composite Structures in Aviation

Pages: 6 (1495 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Transportation  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] S. Air Force C-141 Starlifter transports and an F111 wing-torque box (see fig. 1). With the Department of Defense under increasing pressure to save money and become more efficient, helping improve its customer's bottom line is now an important justification for much of the R&D, which DSTO carries out.

Research in the long-term exposure of boron epoxy composites in the tropics, completed in 2000, produced in-depth knowledge of the composite's shear capabilities in an environment where moisture uptake of the material was as high as 85%. The experiment, which lasted three and half years, showed there was no significant change to the composites bonding ability.

APPLICATION OF BORON COMPOSITES IN AIRFRAME MANUFACTURING

Boron composites were first employed in airframe manufacturing in Grumman Corporation's F-14A twin-engine, carrier-based jet fighter engineered for the U.S. Navy. "The F-14 will be the first aircraft designed from inception to utilize boron composite outer skins on the horizontal stabilizer over an aluminum honeycomb core (See fig. 2).

To avoid the weight penalty of mechanically fastening the composite fibrous skin to metal, the company uses a boron composite-titanium subassembly that is bonded to the honeycomb core… Structural testing of flight hardware will involve two complete static test airframes and various key components, including titanium wing box beams and boron epoxy stabilizers."

The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle's airframe is partially constructed using boron composites. The twin tail and rudders are boron composite skin over a honeycomb metallic structure. Like the F-14, boron composite materials make up a small percentage of the complete airframe.

CONCLUSION

The use of boron composite epoxies in aerospace manufacturing has far surpassed boron composite fabrics. Although boron composites have successfully tested in many types of aircraft and have proven superior structural replacement for certain metal alloys, their use has been constrained to test articles, the empennage and small non-load bearing components of the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, and the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle.

Boron fiber composites are also finding usage and acceptance in the marketplace of golf clubs, tennis rackets, ski poles and other sporting equipment.

In today's competitive world of aerospace technology, cost ratios of boron composite materials to other composites must be addressed if boron composites are to be practical. Boron composites continue to be almost five times more expensive than carbon/carbon or graphite composites. The cost of refining boron and the creation of the actual fiber needs to be reduced and aligned with current industry financial abilities, if the use of boron-based composites in the manufacturing of aircraft structures is to be adopted.

Works Cited

Anft, Torsten. "Grumman Prepares the F-14A for its First Flight." INTERAVIA, November 1970.


Attallah, Moataz M."boron in Materials Technology." The American University in Cairo.

< http://biotsavart.tripod.com/bci.htm

Buckingham, David A. & Lyday, Phyllis A. " boron in Materials Technology." USGS Open File Report 01-006.

< http://pubs.usgs.gov/openfile/of01-006/boron.html

Editors History. "The Story of Borax." Rio Tinto Borax.

< http://www.borax.com/company12.html

Shankar, Krishnakumar. "Composite Material." Composites and Adhesives Home Page.

< http://octarine.adfa.edu.au:8080/~kks/CompAdhes/LECT_NOTES/C&A_L1.html

Stark, H.C. "boron -- From Eye Drops to Rocket Propellants." GmbH. 2001.

< http://www.unr.edu/sb204/geology/civilztn.html

Vodicka, Roger." boron in Materials Technology." Defense Science & Technology Organization.

< http://www.dsto.defence.gov.au/corporate/reports/DSTO-TN-0309.pdf

Werheit, Helmut, Dr. " boron and boron-rich Solids." Gerhard Mercator Universitat.

< http://www.uni-duisburg.de/FB10/LFKP/Bor/boron.eng.html

shows the placement and visual of a boron patch

F-14 Stabilizer showing areas of boron composite usage

Editors History. "The Story of Borax." Rio Tinto Borax.

http://www.borax.com/company12.html

Attallah, Moataz M."Boron in Materials Technology." The American University in Cairo.

< http://biotsavart.tripod.com/bci.htm

Buckingham, David A. & Lyday, Phyllis A."Boron in Materials Technology." USGS Open File Report 01-006.

< http://pubs.usgs.gov/openfile/of01-006/boron.html

Vodicka, Roger. "Boron in Materials Technology." Defense Science & Technology Organization.

http://www.uni-duisburg.de/FB10/LFKP/Bor/boron.eng.html

Anft, Torsten. "?

http://www.anft.net/f-14/f14-history-f14a-interavia.htm

http://www.uni-duisburg.de/FB10/LFKP/Bor/boron.eng.html

Baker, Alan Dr. "Australian Research into Aircraft Applications of High-Performance Composites."

< http://www.atse.org.au/publications/irc-reports/paper-china_september_2001p1.htm

Anft, Torsten. "?

http://www.anft.net/f-14/f14-history-f14a-interavia.htm

http://www.uni-duisburg.de/FB10/LFKP/Bor/boron.eng.html [END OF PREVIEW]

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