Term Paper: Brain Drain in Both Developed

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[. . .] Hence, it can be said that even with the fear of brain drain, if one chooses to stay in their own country at the educational or later at the professional level, then the standards at each respective level have a possibility of increasing without having to move somewhere else. While economists theorize that by no means proven beyond doubt, it is important to note that brain drain does not necessarily have only down falling impacts on a country's various factors, such as education and professional training. Furthermore, it is important to realize that the economic brain drain phenomenon can only analyze some of the factors regarding the various theories on the impact of international migration on the economy and on a country's society. Considering all the other factors of migration, such as remittances, inward investment, technology transfer, increased trade flows and charitable activities, the calculated effect, as predicted before may prove to be a welcoming change considering many factors. As discussed below, there is an urgent need to build a more at research, analysis, conclusion, and finally a practical report showing all the financial needs that can take into account all these factors.

Reducing Brain Drain May Not Be the Best Answer:

Considering that brain drain may not always be bad, then reducing the mobility of the highly skilled cream residing in ones country may not be important. With the exception of some extreme cases, certain measure that freeze the mobility of immigrants is not counted as the most effective solution to cause of brain drain (Bhardan&Kroll. 2003). To be more accurate, certain policies that are only focused on discounting the movement of immigrants from a developing country in various fields, direct into the developing countries, may only result as a temporary solution, and more importantly may not produce the desired results, some reasons are given below.

Differentiating between brain drain and brain gain: This implies, as discussed earlier, that the total economic effect of migration is based on its particular context. There is a possibility that, the specific targeted sectors in specific countries, if precautions to reduce migration are adopted, that can end up doing more harm than good.

Restricting Mobility: If attempts are made to restrict the mobility and flow of human resource, this may result in worse consequences. Evidently if would-be migrants are denied are restrained to migrate on the basis of the assumed consequences, this might be later termed as discriminatory and a compromise on human rights. Limiting would-be migrants is now termed as "compassionate racism." In which the host country restricts the professional opportunities for developing country nationals. The developed world restricts the opportunities of developing-country nationals. "The blurring lines between discriminatory immigration controls and presumably effective developed measures was best demonstrated in the controversy surrounding a controversial proposal by UK unions in early 2005 to limit the recruitment of African academics to British universities" (Bhardan&Kroll. 2003).

Practicality: There are several reasons that prove why stopping the flow of immigration does not work most of the times. People always find a way, if a country's policy won't allow them to migrate, then they can always apply directly to some organization in the country they want to migrate into, once they get an acceptance letter; the organization can sponsor them on their own, hence they find a "way around the law." Some may seek to move, but just not declare that they have certain qualifications -- resulting in a brain waste that helps nobody.

If we consider the effects of brain drain on a bigger economic level, then restricting immigrants does have the possibility of undermining considerable benefits that a trained professional might bring with him, which can cater to global efficiency. Economist have long researched that an increase labor force with greater mobility results in positive economic sense. Some, such as Alan Winters, have even demonstrated the potential size of these gains. Given demographic and developmental disparities, the potential gains from increasing such mobility are immense. While migration does have its negative impacts on some countries, and based on some positive effects of migrations we cannot base the entire over all policy stances and should not underestimate the rational of resisting the pressures of greater human mobility (Bhardan&Kroll. 2003).

Economic Drain in Developed Countries:

In the present times, there is an ongoing tension between the national policies of many developed countries, for instance Netherlands, who are not aiming at attracting high skilled labor. While on the other case policies are being drafted to encourage development at the hands of a country's own people and prevent brain drain at least in the sensitive areas, such as health and education sectors. No consensus however exists on the extent of the problem of brain drain, nor its solutions.

The question of the hour is how "large" the loss of "brains," that is it possible to overcome professional loss by allowing, other immigrants from other country to prove their mantel. These questions after extensive research have been answered by experts in their various studies. Studies conducted on the basic level by researchers, discovered a positive and unique effect of migration on the economy of 37 countries, which encouraged the prospects of human capital formation. Carrington and Detragiache computed emigration rates at three educational levels for a large set of developing countries, Making use of such data they found out that "countries have found simple but strong support regarding the benefits of brain drain in cross section for 50 developing, where the migration level of highly educational and trained individuals was calculated to be 20% and the proportion of people with higher or advanced level education is 10%" (Beattie. 2004).

Especially small countries got a heavy economic boost one such trained professional were working in their major leagues. However, from the developing countries perspective, the most worrisome situation was observed in the Sub-Saharan Africa and Central America.

Effects if Brain Drain on Developed Countries:

The first can be the effect the option for emigration has on the growing potential of the sending country. The inflictions are in generous amounts, rom the added responsibility of educating these people, the amalgamation of societal issues to the capital that is required for a business initiation.

The second effect will be the total amount of lost human capital. This effects factors like economy (multiplier effects, dependency, labor market situation), education (quality of education, educational attainment), health (provision and quality of health services), institutions (the competence of local public institution, trust in public institutions).

The third effect would be that high skilled migrants will be deriving their country of the talent they possess, which they will be utilizing in a far more developed country than their own, hence from the developed country's perspective it's just another added resource but for the developing country it's a precious resource lost.

These are the effects that take place through professional migration. In reality these factors do tend to overlap, but still a conceptual distinction can be made between these factors (Beattie. 2004). A theoretical and factual insight can be gained through these researches, they can also be helpful in specifying the study of policy instruments that can be utilized to overcome or to some extent minimizing the down fall effects of economic explosion: from drafting policies that consider ethical issues to consolidating monetary resources between cities/states, so that the professional loss that is an ongoing threat can be overcome to a certain extenet.

The Impact of Development Policy on Migration:

After much research there are still various unanswered questions regarding the effect of various policies on the possibility of skilled professionals and their decision to migrate into a developed country. Various questions enter a person's mind for instance if progress is made in the important fields in their own country, for example prominent contributions in educations and health sector, will they be motivated and encouraged enough to migrate? In order to find out whether development policies have any effect on economic brain drain we can analyze certain points, for example we could investigate the determinants of highly skilled immigrants in order to understand whether their behavior can be influenced by various development policies (Basu, Fernald & Matthew. 2001).

Since development policies are for everyone that included the immigration of low skilled immigrants and hence affects them too, another question that could be asked is to what extent these policies can restrain the flow of low skilled labor since it is next to unwanted. A related question is whether developing countries consider migration as a factor in national development techniques and developing factors. The most prominent question posed in the present times is whether these proposed strategies are effective and to what extent, also what are the other factors that mainstream migration into national development planning.

Brain drain concerns in developing countries:

To make our explanation simple, we will consider only one professional area and analyze it to its length. In many developing countries, engineers graduate at the bachelor's level, in all the cases the quality of training and… [END OF PREVIEW]

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