Research Proposal: Brand Loyalty

Pages: 10 (3353 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 12  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Sports  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] Kunkel, Funk, and King (2009) investigate sport team brands, and specifically as these are associated with league brands. Brisbane and Sydney (developed locations) were the specific investigation locations.

The study found that brand association literature could be usefully applied to promote an understanding of sport league associations. Attributes, benefits, and attitudes were factors that linked strongly to professional football leagues. League identification and peer group acceptance, on the other hand, could not be proven as particularly important for league brands. Commitment showed the strongest correlation. Once again, the fact that this study was conducted for developed world participants provides a strong basis for application to the American market. Contrasting factors can then be identified for the Kenyan market as well, which makes this study useful as a starting point for such investigations.

Labrecque, Krishen, and Grezskowiak (2011) explore social factors as motivation for brand loyalty. Interestingly, the contrasting factors of conformity, as opposed to escapism, were investigated for different population samples.

The specific brand that formed the basis for this investigation was Apple computers. The tendency of this brand to encourage conformity on the one hand and escape from conformity on the other created a good platform for such an investigation. The same can be applied to sports brands, where the specific brand is set apart from others, while conformity occurs within the brand and among its loyal customers.

The tension level between conformity and escape among the youthful populations in Kenya and the United States can provide valuable information to marketers and brand product creators regarding how to angle messages to their target marketers.

Lee et al. (2010) focus on more external factors, such as team identification and customer satisfaction, to investigate driving factors for brand loyalty. Attitudinal brand loyalty variables investigated for this purpose include cognitive, affective, and conative components. Significantly, and relevant for the current investigation, the majority of participants were under 30 years, and youthful.

The findings identified three stages of building attitudinal brand loyalty: The cognitive brand loyal stage, followed by the affective brand loyal stage, and finally the conative brand loyal stage. Repurchase intention was not found to be relative to positive brand experience. Strong team attachment was positively correlated with commitment to the brand.

6.

Validity and Generalizability

In the investigation of the above-mentioned components, qualitative research presents certain challenges in terms of establishing validity criteria. Unlike quantitative research, qualitative research does not succumb to tests regarding the statistic testability of the results. Ethics and integrity similarly pose challenges to qualitative research, since, more often than not, the researcher will be working with participants rather than with numbers or research in hard copy. Hence, some specific positions need to be taken on both the validity, ethical principles, and integrity to be upheld during the research. Specifically, the proposed research will examine similarities and differences among the youth of the United States and those in Kenya regarding their perception of branded sports apparel.

To collect information about these viewpoints, the researcher will conduct a number of interviews with various interest groups. In addition to the youth in both countries, the researcher will also approach sports apparel manufacturers and marketing managers in order to gather information about the sale of certain brands and sales strategies that are used.

For qualitative research, generalizability is one of the most common criteria to establish validity. In other words, the applicability of findings to further or similar research will determine the validity level. In the case of the study proposed here, validity is ensured by the applicability of the research to other areas. Different countries, for example, can be examined for sportswear popularity among the youth using the same or similar methods to the current researchers. Other products can be substituted in the same way, with the basic elements of the study methods basically remaining the same. Other age groups can also be examined for their perceptions of various products or services across countries.

The findings can therefore be generalized not only to different products, but to different population groups as well. In this way, the study is generalizable to other populations and locations and validity can be ensured.

In terms of ethical principles, a generally accepted set of ethics will be followed during the research. When interviews are conducted, all participants will sign a consent form, for example. The consent form will ensure the privacy of individuals or companies, but obtain permission to use the results of interviews and questionnaires for the purpose of the research. Participants will be provided with the consent forms and receive a full explanation of the particular requirements upon which consent depends. Participants will also be given permission to withdraw from the study if, at any point, they feel that they need to do so, without having to explain their reasons. In the case of companies or marketing entities, participants will be assured that no confidential information will be divulged to the public. They will be free to withhold any information they consider to be too private to share with the public.

In terms of integrity, the researcher will maintain integrity in the research by being forthright with study participants. When recruited, participants will be made aware of the premise of the study, its purpose, and its expected outcomes. Each participant will be thoroughly briefed on the data gathering procedures and the purpose of the data to be collected. They will also be allowed to ask questions regarding this procedure, which will be answered in a forthright and open manner. Once the research has been published, participants will have access to the information via libraries, the Internet, and other information channels.

The researcher must also be aware of sensitive areas that might arise in interviews, such as cultural barriers to obtaining popular products, levels of wealth, and so on. The researcher will demonstrate sufficient sensitivity to such issues to minimize any compromise to the study or to the participants' feelings of well-being.

In addition to validity, it is essential to maintain the ethical principles and integrity required of qualitative researchers today, which will be an ongoing element of the research.

7.

Ethics

Acknowledging ethical challenges is an important component of research, most particularly where there is a significant amount of participants. All participants need to be approached in a respectful and open way in order to obtain research results that are both authentic and etchical. Since the proposed research will consider a developing and developed country, it is possible that many ethical issues would relate to culture. Hence, I need routes of access mainly to the sports youth of the United States and those in Kenya. To obtain such access, my first approach would be to contact high schools and Universities. I expect to talk to lecturers and sports administrators in order to obtain the necessary permissions to conduct the study.

Hence, access will be gained by contacting University personnel and administrative staff. Informed consent will be gained by working with the students themselves. Each young person will receive a consent form explaining the purpose of the research, what will be done with the data, and the aims and goals upon completion of the research. Students' privacy will be protected by ensuring that no real names are used, and that only responses are used to make interpretations. For each new interview or questionnaire process, the consent will be renegotiated and ensured.

Regarding the relative power of university personnel over potential participants, the researcher can personally visit lecture venues and sports fields to provide students with the assurance that participation in the study is entirely voluntary. Lecturers and coaches must not be allowed to blackmail or scare people into becoming research participants. Instead, the researcher will encourage participation by emphasizing the good that can result from the data that is obtained.

8.

Conclusion

When investigating the drivers of brand loyalty, cultural differences will need to be taken into account. American brands that wish to enter the Kenyan market, for example, will need to take into account that there may be an already existing basis of brand loyalty in the country. To compete effectively with this, the specific reasons for existing brand loyalty need to be taken into account. Furthermore, the company will need to take into account the needs and wants of the local population, along with collective cultural values that can potentially be included in the product. A company might even use local or international celebrities to enhance its image and enhance its image in the mind of its potential market.

The youth in the United States and Kenya have several differences in terms of culture and economic power. However, globalization has ensured a greater connection between these groups, which can be used as a basis for building brand loyalty.

References

Aspara, J. (2009). Stock ownership as a motivation of brand-loyal and brand-supportive behaviors. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 26(6). Pp. 427-436. Retrieved from: http://www.yconomie.com/aspara/articles/aspara-2009_stock_ownership_brand_loyal_behaviors.pdf

Ayuk, A. And Nyaseda, C. (2008, Spring). CFC Model. The Appropriateness of Celebrity Endorsement in… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Brand Loyalty.  (2014, March 25).  Retrieved July 18, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/brand-loyalty/9479894

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"Brand Loyalty."  25 March 2014.  Web.  18 July 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/brand-loyalty/9479894>.

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"Brand Loyalty."  Essaytown.com.  March 25, 2014.  Accessed July 18, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/brand-loyalty/9479894.