Research Paper: Breast Cancer How Genes Influence

Pages: 6 (2352 words)  ·  Style: MLA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Genetics  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] Because of that, the -656 G. allele has the potential to harbor a "higher production" of APE1 (Kang, 100). That would create the biological plausibility that APE1- 656TG/GG genotypes are then expected to be associated with a lower breast cancer risk (Kang, 100). Kang found that -656 T>G polymorphism was associated with a risk of breast cancer on a significantly high level (pg. 100). When compared with people who had the -656 TT genotype, those people who had the -656 TG/GG genotype saw their oncogenic breast cancer risk decrease from 1 to 0.71 (Kang, 99-100).

A meta-analysis done by Zhou also examined the -656 T>G polymorphism, and reported that it potentially had a protective effect on cancer risk, particularly among Asian populations (Zhou). There were also accumulations of DNA lesions that were found to be involved in breast cancer development, indicating that the genotype's effect could be overwhelmed by something as simple as aging -- during which more lesions are created (Kang, 100). That means that age plays a role, as well as genetics, when it comes to whether a person is at increased risk of breast cancer. For those younger than 52 years of age, there may be a benefit to having the APE1-656TG/GG genotypes (Kang, 100).

Those over 52 years of age saw a higher oncogenic breast cancer risk than those under 52 years of age (Kang, 100). According to Kang, APE1 -656TG/GG also has an effect on the different features of breast cancer, but there have not been any other studies that have shown this to be the case (Kang, 99). The APE1 -656TG/GG genotype was found to be associated with a lower frequency of lymph node involvement in cases of breast cancer, but it is important to be cautious with the reporting of these results (Kang, 100). It is possible that the association comes only from the stage of the cancer during diagnosis, and will have to be confirmed by further study which could use polymorphism to help more accurately predict the clinical course breast cancer will take in an individual (Kang, 100). That, of course, could lead to additional research and improved treatment options that would be more unique to the patient.

Recommendations

Specific Recommendations for action must be addressed. These are not the same as the recommendations addressed in the introduction, as those were more generalized to the basic ideas that should be considered when it comes to research into genes and breast cancer. Here, the specific recommendations include:

Further extensive study of the APE1 gene, which has been shown to play a role in malignancies in humans.

Consideration of the APE1 gene based on its interaction with other genes in the body that may also cause or encourage malignancies.

Research into the number of breast cancer cases each year where abnormalities in the APE1 gene are seen.

A focus on early diagnosis of breast cancer or preventative measures that can be taken for those born with the APE1 gene.

Conclusion

It is not difficult to show that genetics, and most specifically the APE1 gene, appear to be the cause of at least a significant number of breast cancer cases throughout the world each year. The implications of that are very important, especially to those who carry an abnormal APE1 gene and those who consider conceiving children, knowing they may pass that abnormality on. The expected impact of this research is an awareness of this particular gene as being a significant marker for breast cancer in a number of people. Since an abnormality in this gene has been clearly discovered over the course of numerous studies to be a marker for breast cancer, the time has come to make the APE1 gene a focus of breast cancer research. This could have an impact on a number of lives, providing hope for those who have this gene abnormality and hope for those who have been diagnosed with breast cancer based on genetic factors.

Works Cited

Cao, Qiang, Qin, Chao, Meng, Xiaoxin, Ju, Xiaobing, Ding, Qi, Wang, Weilin, Zhu, Jian, Wang, Wei, Li, Pu, Jiawei, Chen, Zhang, Zhengdong, and Yin, Changjun. Genetic Polymorphisms in APE1 Are Associated With Renal Cell Carcinoma Risk in a Chinese Population. Molecular Carcinogenesis, 50: 863-870. 2011. Print.

Chang-Claude, Jenny, Popanda, Odilia, Tan, Xiang-Lin, Kropp, Silke, Helmbold, Irmgard, von Fournier, Dietrick, Haase, Wulf, Sautter-Bihl, Marie Luise, Wenz, Frederik, Schmezer, Peter, and Ambrosone, Christine B. Association between Polymorphisms in the DNA Repair Genes, XRCC1, APE1, and XPD and Acute Side Effects of Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients. Clinical Cancer Research, 11: 4802-4809. 2005. Print.

Kang, Huafeng, Dai, Zhijun, Ma, Xiaobin, Ma, Li, Jin, Yaofeng, Liua, Xiaoxu, and Wang, Xijing. A genetic variant in the promoter of APE1 gene (?656 TNG) is associated with breast cancer risk and progression in a Chinese population. Gene, 531: 97-100. 2013. Print.

Poletto, Mattia, Di Loreto, Carla, Marasco, Daniela, Poletto, Elena, Puglisi, Fabio, Damante, Giuseppe, and Tell, Gianluca. Acetylation on critical lysine residues of Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1(APE1) in triple negative breast cancers. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 424. 2012. Print.

Zhao, Zhiyong, Liu, Chuan, Zeng, Yong, Gu, Lei, Ying,… [END OF PREVIEW]

Four Different Ordering Options:

?
Which Option Should I Choose?

1.  Buy the full, 6-page paper:  $28.88

or

2.  Buy + remove from all search engines
(Google, Yahoo, Bing) for 30 days:  $38.88

or

3.  Access all 175,000+ papers:  $41.97/mo

(Already a member?  Click to download the paper!)

or

4.  Let us write a NEW paper for you!

Ask Us to Write a New Paper
Most popular!

Breast Cancer Pathophysiology Thesis


Genetic Pathway of Breast Cancer and Gene Therapy Research Paper


Gene Expression Analysis in Cancer Research Paper


Cancer: A Deep Study Essay


Cellular Proliferation Cancer Essay


View 51 other related papers  >>

Cite This Research Paper:

APA Format

Breast Cancer How Genes Influence.  (2014, February 15).  Retrieved June 17, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/breast-cancer-genes-influence/4364075

MLA Format

"Breast Cancer How Genes Influence."  15 February 2014.  Web.  17 June 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/breast-cancer-genes-influence/4364075>.

Chicago Format

"Breast Cancer How Genes Influence."  Essaytown.com.  February 15, 2014.  Accessed June 17, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/breast-cancer-genes-influence/4364075.