Breast Cancer Treatment Introduction Chapter

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[. . .] , 2003; Li, Malone, & Daling, 2003). Once remedy for prevention of cancer was mentioned earlier, i.e. annual mammography screening. But when should a woman start the cycle of annual mammography screening. According to the extensive research work, annual screening should start at the age of 40 to reduce fatality rates (American Cancer Society, 2006b).

Work of HBM was concerned with different aspects of mammography screening. The first step was to identify the reasons behind women's attitude towards cancer screening. Therefore, a sample of women was selected to fill a questionnaire. The sample represented groups of women in favor of screening and women who oppose this. Results were concluded using relationships between different variables of HBM. Along with this, multivariable regression models were used to identify factors affecting social support and other constituents of the HBM model.

Purpose

This article intends to make a connection between social, psychological and cultural factors that have an impact on African-American women and their attitude to cancer treatment and annual screening. After establishing the factors, the next step is to explore the concept of annual mammography screening from every possible aspect. In order to achieve the main purpose, research work has been based on a variety of factors which can be changed according to different situations in order to arrive at a logical and reasonable conclusion. The factors include cancer fatalism, dispositional optimism, social support, perception of general health, components of HBM and mammography in the past year (Trochim, 2006).

This study was initiated with a survey conducted amongst older African-American women to discover the driving force behind their attitude to cancer screening and treatment. The area of focus was South Carolina and women under the age of 50 were encouraged to participate in this activity.

Assistance was provided by local hospitals and housing authorities who generated a list of low income houses and an estimate of the number of old women residing in that area. Housing unit managers invited women to participate after explaining the reason behind the study and coordinated with participants to arrange focus group sessions in these houses.

The session started with an opening speech about the objectives of the research work, and a formal and written approval was obtained from all participants. A questionnaire was distributed amongst the group containing two open ended questions. The questions were planned to incarcerate the extent to which women have accepted this bitter truth of life and their motivation levels to deal with the biggest challenge of life. It was also concerned about the way in which women prefer to receive such information. After the questionnaires were filled, participants were given details about cancer, cancer screening and locations at which they can get access to free mammograms.

Significance of the Study

Researchers have put in a lot of effort and hard work in order to reveal answers to the unanswered questions, and these efforts have been acknowledged widely. Works of various researchers have been compiled in this article to provide a complete picture of breast cancer, its hazards, treatment and its preventive measures. As the article focuses on African-American women, it helps to enhance knowledge about cancer treatment in that region. Also, it serves as the starting point for healthcare practitioners who can improvise community health programs targeted for African-American women to make them more effective. Nonetheless, the article is a valuable addition to the existing data on cancer treatment and annual screening among African-American women (Trochim, 2006).

Nature of the Study

Logically, reason for a particular theory can be looked at in two ways, using the deductive approach or using the inductive approach (Trochim, 2006). The deductive approach first considers the general and broad view which is then broken down to more specific sections. The strategy is similar to the top down method. For example, a canvasser will first work towards the basics i.e. having a clear idea about the general and basic concept of a particular topic. The second step is to explore different areas of this topic, to break down the topic into sub-topics, including the factors affecting it. Later, researcher uses various assumptions for further analysis. The results of these experiments are compiled to reach to a conclusion and this conclusion is linked to the main topic. The end result either confirms the theory or rejects it completely (Trochim, 2006).

The second method, inductive approach, is the complete opposite of the above stated theory. It can be termed as the bottom up approach which starts with specific sections and notion and works on those facts to present conclusions on a bigger picture. Here, the conclusion is taken as the starting point and work is planned to reach to a theory that confirms our findings. (Trochim, 2006)

Both approaches contradict each other. The deductive approach is mainly concerned with various assumptions and the experiments and factors are taken into consideration to justify that assumption. On the contrary, inductive approach is more concerned with findings and conclusion. Practically, both the theories are used concurrently. Instead of two separate graphs, researchers combine both theories to form a circular graph, and the concept is represented as an ongoing cycle, first breaking down the general concept into specific facts and then linking those facts to the main theory. Researchers have the ability to overcome limitations imposed by project and environment in order to come up with innovative ideas and theories (Trochim, 2006). This article mainly uses the deductive reasoning approach.

Designing research is time consuming work and requires a lot of effort and concentration. The first step is to define the scope of research, whether to base its research for a fixed time period termed as cross sectional research, or to focus on a study for a particular period of time, such as for 1-2 years. Such a research is termed as longitudinal research work. Longitudinal research is further broken down into two measurements, repeated measures and time series. Theory does not differentiate between the two methods. Based on practical examples it can be deduced that if less than two waves are used for measurement, it is classified under repeated measures. To be classified under the time series, many waves should be used for measurement (Trochim, 2006).

Minimum number of waves has not been mentioned in any research work. However, generally 20 are considered to be the borderline to be categorized under time series. The minimum number has been decided on the basis of practical examples. For time series, authors are required to use more than 20 observations in order to reach a reasonable conclusion. On the contrary, for repeated measurements such as ANOVA, the number of observations is usually less than 20. For the purpose of this article, cross sectional research is more appropriate (Trochim, 2006).

Surveys are the back bone of any research, and can be categorized in two ways, interviews or questionnaire. The only difference between the two types of surveys is the way in which it is conducted. Where one entails the use of written evidence, the other is a verbal one-on-one communication approach. However, for interviews to be effective the researcher has to bear additional expense of hiring an interviewer who has the required communication skills (Trochim, 2006).

There is a general perception that interviews contain open ended questions, giving the participant more room to present his view, whereas questionnaires are brief and relevant to the point only. In reality, it depends on the interviewer and the researcher setting questions for questionnaires. Even interviews can contain close ended questions and questionnaires can be designed in a way to allow the participant to present his views (Trochim, 2006).

The kingdom of survey research has turned over a new leaf in the last 10 years. Automated mechanism has been introduced to select numbers randomly for mobile phone interviews. For focus groups, group interviews have been innovated and new ideas are promoted. This has resulted in the rise of the concept of service delivery. Questionnaires are encouraged for this new concept as it is consistent with the mode of surveys (Trochim, 2006).

Conceptual or Theoretical Framework

This framework deals with the walls surrounded around the concept of screening that prevent women from entering inside. These obstacles include conveyance issues resulting from cost and transportation issues, not having access to health care facilities and insufficient information about cancer screening and its treatment. The most powerful obstacle in the way to improvement is perception of women who believe that the disease is incurable and a thing to be ashamed of, because people start looking at you with sympathy and regret (Jernigan, Trauth, Neal-Ferguson, & Cartier-Ulrich, 2001; Powe, 2001; Shankar, Selvin, & Alberg, 2002).

In today's world, people are so busy with their own lives that the disease of cancer and its risk of occurrence are normally overlooked by women. As a result, cancer screening is undertaken only when it is predicted. Therefore, it takes a crisis orientation approach rather than a prevention orientation… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Breast Cancer Treatment.  (2012, April 27).  Retrieved January 21, 2020, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/breast-cancer-treatment/5996038

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"Breast Cancer Treatment."  Essaytown.com.  April 27, 2012.  Accessed January 21, 2020.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/breast-cancer-treatment/5996038.