Breast CancerResearch Paper

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Breast cancer Prevention/Health Promotion

Summary of teaching plan

The teaching plan would involve the active participation of the members of the community. The program would aim to communicate awareness about the prevention and early detection of the incidents of breast cancer in the community women. The program would be assisted with the use of literature and a slide show that would illustrate some of the techniques that could be used to detect and prevent breast cancer. The teachings would dwell on the possible target groups susceptible to breast cancer. The language of communication and literature would be simple without too many technical jargons so t that it is easy to understand for the layman. The teaching plans to first target the female groups that are susceptible to develop breast cancer and then spread the awareness about the early detection and prevention issues through peer counseling.

Epidemiological rationale for topic

Age is the most significant risk factor for women with respect to developing breast cancer. There are however several other factors that are associated such as early menarche, late menopause, very delayed childbirth (until after 30 years) and not bearing children at all. Contrary to perceptions, researches have shown that long-term use of oral contraceptives may result in increased incidences of premenopausal conditions but not post-menopausal breast cancer. In the same way the problem of obesity would probably increase a women's risk to post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal breast cancer (Globalization, Women, and Heath in the 21st Century 2007). Another factor for the incidence of breast cancer is hereditary reasons. Survey and researches have shown that about 10% to 14% of breast cancer has their roots in the family's hereditary reasons ((Horton, 1998)). But research has also shown that more than 80% of the women diagnosed with breast cancer do not have a mother, sister or daughter in their family who had suffered from breast cancer (Freilich, 2004).

Prevalence

Breast cancer is among the highest recurrence incidents with an estimated more than 200,000 new cases diagnosed annually among American women and is considered to be among the most common form of cancer (http://www.cancer.org, 2003). The disease had dramatic increase of almost 40% since the 1970s to 2000. The incidents of increase are attributed to the better screening principles of mammography (Mehta, Newmeyer, Loutfy & Faught, 2013).

Mortality

Estimates are that every year the number of deaths due to breast cancer is more than 40,000. This is 25% of all the cancer deaths among women where breast cancer has the second largest mortality rates among all cancers in women (Korpraphong et al., 2013). In the U.S., the African-American women are the biggest victims of the disease. There has however been some decrease in the rate of deaths with the rate dropping from 28 per 100000 women in 1990to 23 per 100000 women in the early 2000s.

Awareness and Prevention

An important screening tool for breast cancer is the breast self-examination test (Who.int, 2015). A correctly conducted self breast examination test is more likely to identify a lump in the breast and can help diagnose breast cancer in the early stages which can save a life by starting early treatment (Ertem & Kocer, 2009). The teaching exercise about awareness and prevention should stress in this aspect for early detection and prevention of mortality due to breast cancer. Awareness about this form of self detection need to be spread among as many females as possible so that they can then further teach the same technique to women in their family members, neighbors, friends and the community. Other methods of detection that women need to be aware about include mammography, ultrasound, digital imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans. Experts agree that early detection of breast cancer is the best way to prevent mortality and death due to the disease.

Evaluation of teaching experience

Evaluation needs to be done for the teaching call plan during the planning of the program. The evaluation of a program takes a number of precautions and clarifies the position of the program with respect to the various components of the plan. This is because once a program is launched there would generally be very little scope for changes, especially in a program that is concerned about teaching and spreading awareness (Steckler & Linnan, 2002).

The implementation of a program is documented by process evaluation. This evaluation helps the stakeholders view the outcome of a program. The types and quantities of services delivered as well as the impact on the receivers of the service and the resources use dot deliver the service is the focus of the evaluation process. The process also encounters the practical problems that could arise during the implementation of the program and the way the problems are dealt with.

An evaluation program would answer specific questions that pertain to the teaching proposal and the teaching program like are there enough materials to fall back on during the teaching process, is the target audience properly selected, is there enough motivation among the target audience, etc.

This process is essentially doing an assessment of the procedures that one would undertake during the teaching program and analyses the effectiveness of the teaching program (Steckler & Linnan, 2002). The evaluation of the teaching program would involve answering the following questions:

Are the goals of the program properly aligned

Whether the intended audience of the awareness and prevention program the target audience selected

How would the delivery of the notes made be made

Whether the assessment of the program made effective

The process evaluation is often used as a means to measure the success of a campaign. In this case also the evaluation process would involve the assessment of the various resources, strategies and tactics used to get the message through to the target audience and an assessment of how that information affects the audience. Thus the process would also involve a short feedback from the audience (Nielsen & Turner, 1983). This possible as the evaluation process seta some prior goals in terms of success of the activity like whether the target audience was what was intended and were resources properly used. Comparing these with the outcomes would give a comparison of the goals set and the target achieved. Hence process evaluation can serve as a benchmarking toll also.

In the case of intervention, awareness and prevention program for a community teaching program on breast cancer the process evaluation can help identify:

The specific topics discussed and methods for discussion for the problem of breast cancer and its awareness on detection and prevention.

The reasons for the success or failure of the community teaching program

The problems encountered and the steps taken to counter the problems

Assessment of the resources used

Assessment of the management of resources like teaching material, literature on the subject of breast cancer prevention and awareness, utilization of expert advice, etc.

Assessment of the training of the staff selected for the community teaching program

Community response to teaching

It is expected that the community would respond well to the teachings and the program. The issue is very close to the women, especially who have attained the age of being in the risk group. The program would details the methods and the ways that can be used for the early detection and prevention of mortality and providing oneself with the opportunity for early treatment of breast cancer among women. Since the program is aimed at spreading awareness and making people aware of the simple measures they can take to prevent mortality due to breast cancer through simple and often homely means, it is expected that community's response to the teaching a and the program would be positive. The messages go be delivered were compiled with minimum of technical jargon so that it is understandable to a non-professional of the issues. This would help the community to better comprehend the problem and the solutions that have been talked about in the program.

Areas of strengths and areas of improvement

The strength of the program is the closeness and the seriousness of the issues of breast cancer for women. The simple and effective ways of prevention and early detection of the problem providing the scope for early treatment and the diminishing chances of mortality from the disease are the strong points of the teaching program. The professional nature of dealing with the program and the detailing of the issue in simple and common language that would help the community understand the issue are the strong points.

There is however scope for improvement with the involvement of more and more communities and holding of more such programs. The duration of the program needed to be a little longer and the presence of an expert of the issues would have been more helpful in answering some of the queries of the participants.

References

Ertem, G., & Kocer, A. (2009). Breast self-examination among nurses and midwives in Odemis health district in Turkey. Indian Journal Of Cancer, 46(3), 208. doi:10.4103/0019-509x.52955

Freilich, G.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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