Annotated Bibliography and Synthesis Performance Based Management PBM Essay

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[. . .] Accordingly, PBM systems ought to be designed with not just the customer in mind, but also employees. Panda & Pradhan's (2016) argue that organisations ought to involve and engage employees in PBM processes if the intended outcomes are to be achieved. A major strength of the study is the random sampling approach used. Typically, random sampling eliminates bias in subject selection, thereby reinforcing the validity and reliability of findings. Though the authors of this article are affiliated to an academic institution, it somewhat lacks the typical rigour of an academic article, especially in terms of scholarly language and organisation of ideas.

Rivenbank, W., Fasiello, R., & Adamo, S. (2016). Moving beyond innovation in smaller local governments: does performance management exist. Public Administration Quarterly, 763-788.

This study sought to examine the existence of performance management systems in small local governments. The study involved a comparative case study of two municipalities, one in the U.S. and another one in Italy. It is often thought that PBM is evident in large organisations mainly since large organisations have the capacity and resources to undertake performance improvement initiatives. This perhaps explains the scarcity of research relating to PBM implementation in smaller organisations. As shown in this article, smaller organisations also have performance management systems. They employ PBM in processes such as budgeting and program monitoring. The article, however, cites leadership as an important determinant of PBM implementation. This ideally means that embracing PBM is not really about the size of the organisation and its resources (financial or non-financial) -- it is about leadership. When the leadership of the organisation is committed to improving organisational outcomes, it will not be reluctant to do so merely on account of resources. Nonetheless, this does not necessarily understate the importance of resource adequacy in pursuing performance improvement initiatives. Some initiatives without a doubt may require a great deal of resources, which may be beyond the reach of majority of smaller organisations. Further, as demonstrated by the article, smaller organisations can benefit from PBM by establishing and monitoring the right performance measures (effectiveness and efficiency). Similar to Pihl-Thingvad's (2017) study, this study is evidently limited by its case study nature -- generalising its findings beyond the two municipalities is quite difficult. Furthermore, the study focuses on public sector organisations, further limiting its generalisability to private-sector organisations given the inherent differences between the two. The authors of the article are affiliated to the University of North Carolina and the University of Salento, respectively, eliminating doubts about its credibility.

Wierzbinski, M. (2016). Performance management in a water and sewerage company. Research Papers of the Wroclaw University of Economics, 434, 190-202.

The author of this article is affiliated to Wroclaw University of Economics, meaning the author has sufficient understanding of the topic of PBM. Focusing on a large water and sewerage firm in Poland, the article outlines the steps involved in designing and implementing a PBM system. The first step involves strategic analysis, which entails evaluating the organisation's internal and external environment. This includes the present strategic direction (vision, mission, and objectives), state of the organisation, strengths (resources and capabilities), weaknesses (processes, controls, systems, procedures, etc.), as well as threats and opportunities in the micro and the macro environment. A strategic analysis ensures informed determination of performance measures and outcomes. The final step involves actual implementation. An important aspect of the PBM implementation cycle relates to stakeholder engagement. The relevant stakeholders -- from employees to suppliers -- must be effectively engaged to ensure a shared understanding of the PBM process, what it seeks to achieve, and their role in achieving those objectives. For instance, employees must be engaged through frequent communication as well as training so as to understand the value of PBM and how it affects their responsibilities, work expectations, and remuneration. The value of this article stems from its focus on PBM implementation. This is indeed an aspect ignored by most studies in this area, including the aforementioned ones. Majority of the studies dwell on defining PBM and its impact on employee and organisational outcomes. This study, therefore, fills an important gap in literature. It is important for organisations to understand how to go about the PBM process to avoid wastage of resources, time, and effort. Nonetheless, it is important to note that the PBM implementation process may not in practice be as procedural as depicted by the article. Furthermore, processes may vary from one organisation to another. Another limitation of the study is its case study nature, which limits its generalisability to other organisations and/or contexts.

Brudan, A. (2010). Rediscovering performance management: systems, learning and integration. Measuring Business Excellence, 14(1), 109-123.

This article is a conceptual paper exploring PBM as a discipline and proposing a unified PBM model. Organised as a literature review, the article particularly tracks the emergence and development of PBM along individual, operational, and strategic dimensions. The article demonstrates that PBM is a relatively new discipline, though its root can be traced to as early as the beginning of organisations several centuries ago. The discipline emerged from systems thinking. This means that PBM is supported by a wide range of disciplines, including strategic management, accounting, human resource management, project management, and psychology. Essentially, PBM requires that an organisation be viewed as a system made up of several interrelated components. Interaction between these components has important implications for organisational inputs and outputs. Another important theme in the article is that PBM is applicable in three levels: individual, operational, and strategic levels. In other words, PBM processes target individual (employee) performance, operational (departmental or functional) performance, and strategic performance (achievement of corporate and business-level objectives). This is a much broader conceptualisation of the notion of PBM, a major strength of the article. The article provides important implications for practice, especially in terms of enhancing the governance of performance management. It particularly emphasises the importance of systems thinking and learning in performance management. The usefulness of this article further emanates from its comprehensive description of the notion of PBM. Agreeing with Woerrlein & Scheck (2016), Brudan (2010) notes that lack of a solid understanding of PBM is problematic, both in practice and research. At the time of authoring this article, the author was a PhD candidate at the University of Melbourne, Australia. Though this could be interpreted as fairly limited understanding of the topic, the article portrays reasonable academic rigour and quality.

Lutwama, G., Roos, J., & Dolamo, B. (2013). Assessing the implementation of performance management of health care workers in Uganda. BMC Health Services Research, 13: 355.

This article assesses the implementation of PBM in the health care sector in Uganda. While most countries in the developed world have embraced PBM, their counterparts in the developing world have lagged behind. In Uganda, reforms in the health care sector have been ongoing in the last two decades, particularly focusing on the introduction of PBM and decentralisation of personnel management to the local government. Using a mixed methods approach (self-administered questionnaire plus semi-structured interviews, as well as stratified random sampling and purposive sampling), the authors of this article sought to examine the extent to which PBM is implemented in the Ugandan health care sector. The study found that though PBM is implemented to some extent, there were considerable loopholes in implementation. More specifically, there were shortfalls in defining performance targets, undertaking performance management planning, as well as defining and familiarising staff members with performance indicators and standards. Additionally, performance assessment schedules were not complied with and there were insufficient performance feedback, ineffective rewarding mechanisms, and limited opportunities for career advancement, further hindering the achievement of the desired outcomes. This article emphasises some of the key success factors as far as PBM implementation is concerned. For organisations to get the most out of PBM, attention has to be paid to regular performance feedback, proper rewarding systems, ongoing performance tracking, and, most importantly, effective setting and communication of performance targets and indicators. Further, the article demonstrates that any organisation can indeed implement PBM irrespective of sector of operation or even country of origin. Similar to Turk (2016), this article employed the mixed methods approach, which is a major strength of the study. Nonetheless, purposive sampling was utilised, which might have introduced some bias. The authors of this article are affiliated to the University of South Africa, meaning that the article presents authoritative and credible information.

Ploom, K., & Haldma, T., (2013). Balanced performance management in the public education system. Baltic Journal of Management, 8(2), 183-207.

The author of this article teaches economics and business administration at Estonia's University of Tartu. This eliminates doubts about the credibility of the article. The article presents the findings of a survey aimed at examining the impact of PBM on public schools in Estonia. With a sample of 164 secondary schools, the study found that PBM positively influenced school performance at the individual, operational, and strategic levels. More specifically, the study confirmed that PBM positively affected students' academic performance by increasing… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Annotated Bibliography and Synthesis Performance Based Management PBM.  (2017, February 2).  Retrieved December 14, 2019, from

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"Annotated Bibliography and Synthesis Performance Based Management PBM."  2 February 2017.  Web.  14 December 2019. <>.

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"Annotated Bibliography and Synthesis Performance Based Management PBM."  February 2, 2017.  Accessed December 14, 2019.