Research Paper: Business Ethics Changes in U.S

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[. . .] Society can be secondary but important stakeholders as the impact placed by business organization on society is long lasting. It is quite possible that the organization is not aware of its corporate social responsibility and the measures to maximize profits are in direct clash with measures of value maximization.

It is, therefore, important for the business organization to evaluate its policies keeping in view all the primary and secondary stakeholders. It is important to mention here that stakeholders are linked with each other. The disadvantage to one of them can lead to multiplier effect. It is also possible that stakeholders are connected in a zero-sum situation. Any benefit to one stakeholder may lead to disadvantage to another. For an organization to stay profitable, it is mandatory that all stakeholders are happy.

Jones' Issue Contingent Model

The factor of lack of equality and equity is a serious problem when evaluated from the perspective of Jones' Issue Contingent Model (Jones, 1991). It is morally intensive when closely observed that the same manager has different style for the employees belonging to various groups. It is surprising to note that the same manager used reward power for his favorite employees though the ones, who are not in his good book only because of their caste and creed, are subjected to coercive power.

This approach can affect the organizational internal environment and culture. The dis-satisfied employees may spread bad word of mouth among the potential employees of that very organization. It is no exaggeration to mention that Muslims have gone a long mile to serve U.S. industry and their talent is recognized and admired all over the world. If effective leadership style is not adopted, it is quite predictable that the U.S. based firms will no longer have access to the talent found in discriminated nations.

Carroll's Ethics Screen

If the modern U.S. based firms or their policies are examined in the light of Carroll's Ethics Screen, it becomes evident that Ethical test approach is not followed at all. It can be said that conventional approach is followed as U.S. firms want good results for their society and their people. They may be concerned about the growth and development of their organizations hence want to mitigate the risk associated with it.

Using the concepts of principles approach (Carroll and Buchholtz, 2011), rights of Muslims are not respects. Freedom of speech and action is no more there for the ones who do not agree with the dominant view that 9/11 was done by Muslim terrorists. Utilitarian approach can be assumed as enacted in the organizational policies as mentioned in the discussion of conventional approaches as well. Justice is not granted as all employees are not treated equal. The U.S. based organizations may defend this point saying that in a diverse workforce, equality cannot be ensured. But it is not a strong argument as the literature published by U.S. organizations still supports the concept of equality. Another argument can be of equity, yet ethical standards are not followed here as well as the Muslims are not entitled to holidays on their religious and other celebrations.

Discussion

Ethics are important in business organizations as they form the foundation of overall culture and environment. Talking in the perspective of international business in the 21st century where globalization has removed all barriers, the role and importance of ethics has increased manifold. It is because; organizations are expanding their businesses to various parts of the world and adding more and more diverse workforce in their portfolio. In order to satisfy the needs of customers belonging to various areas, organizations need to work closely with employees belonging to those areas so that they can understand the needs and offer the products and services accordingly.

After 9/11, the employment policies devised and implemented in U.S. based organizations do not comply with ethical standards as approved previously. All employees are not treated equal and there are many communities who are considered inferior to the ones natively belonging to USA. This differentiation is leading to workplace conflicts, increased dissatisfaction, job switching and bad word of mouth about the organization.

USA has been playing an important role in creating body of knowledge for various disciplines since the last many decades. After the invention of Internet, the transformation of knowledge into digital form has become a matter of routine. All over the world, USA standards are accepted as international standards and industry best practices are developed from the trend monitored in U.S. based organizations.

As USA has published much material on ethical implications of organizations, the students graduating from U.S. institutes and following U.S. learning material are in a fix. The increasing disparity between concepts and practices is giving birth to many questions in the minds of young businessmen who are there to adopt business practices for guaranteed success of their initiatives.

Conclusion

The incident of 9/11 is a tragedy for many people of the world. No doubt, Americans suffered from it and many of them lost their lives as well, but what is more important is, the attitude of Americans and their government towards Muslims. They are mistreated and discriminated. Not to talk about Muslims only, the supporters of Muslims belonging to America are also subject to task and punishment. It has been long time now since 9/11 took place but the fire of hatred is still burning among the Americans and Muslims.

It is important to consider that the political conflicts and policies implemented for Muslims in USA is adding bad name to the organizations of USA. There are people who love to work in American firms but their self-respect does not allow them to accept the humiliating policies. Muslims may or may not be responsible for 9/11 attack but the declining consideration towards ethics is a dangerous approach.

This weakness of U.S. firms can be perceived as an opportunity for other firms. As mentioned earlier, ethics provide guidelines about right and wrong action. Regardless of grudges and prejudices, the concept of right and wrong should remain the same. It is where the real application of ethical concepts is tested in an environment where hostile feelings prevail and it is easy for one stakeholder to hurt the other one.

References

Angle, C. (2008). Defining Ethics Good & Evil. New York: Philosophy Publishing.

Bacher, C. (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility. Germany: GRIN Verlag.

Bergen, P. (2011). The Longest War America and Al-Qaeda since 9/11. New York: Free Press.

Carroll, A. And Buchholtz, A. (2011). Business & Society. USA: Cengage Learning.

Denzin, N. (2009). Studies in Symbolic Interaction Vol 33.UK: Emerald Group Publishing.

Hendrie, E. (2010). 9/11-Enemies Foreign and Domestic. USA: Edward Hendrie.

John, T. (1991). Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations: An Issue-Contingent Model. Academy of Management Review 16, 366-395.

Key, S. (1999). Toward a new theory of the firm: a critique of stakeholder theory. Journal of Management History 37, 317-328.

Landau, E. (2012). Osama Bin Laden: The Life and… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Business Ethics Changes in U.S.  (2012, October 5).  Retrieved April 25, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/business-ethics-changes-us/8394860

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"Business Ethics Changes in U.S."  Essaytown.com.  October 5, 2012.  Accessed April 25, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/business-ethics-changes-us/8394860.