Business Strategies Found in Asia Term Paper

Pages: 22 (6477 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 29  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Business

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .

When functioning on the international scale, it is easy to forget that multiple stimuli can obscure perception and other overall message. This creates miscommunication and problems.

An effective leader will take a chance at being uncomfortable to promote dialogue amongst people of different cultures. Leaders have the ability to influence, inspire and relate stories to their employees. This in turn creates an environment of trust and pride. Upon studying cultural relations, only then does one see the universal themes. The connection begins at a fundamental level of human sociology where the use of story is central. Howard Gardner reflects, "the ultimate impact of the leader depends most significantly on the particular story that he or she relates or embodies, and the receptions to that story on the part of the audiences" (Gardner, 1995). By telling stories, allows for a certain level of openness or vulnerability on the part of the leader and makes them human. By opening the line of communication, gives the employee knowledge of their environment and develops trust. The leader's role is to sell the idea of commitment within a culture. Odiorne suggests, "if employees know what is expected, and what help and resources are available, they can then be relied upon to govern their actions to achieve the commitments they have made" (Odiorne, 1987). This sets the stage for goals and achieving high performance. The culture in turn feeds off this energy and excitement.

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Across cultures there are varying definitions of leadership that have direct effect on business operations and strategy. Because of differing value systems augmenting the strategic plan is not unheard of but it is best in order to remain cost effective and on schedule that a company study its new environment before entry into the market.

Australia

TOPIC: Term Paper on Business Strategies Found in Asia Assignment

Australia, out of three countries used for this study appears to have the most Western of influences. It many ways Australia remains mysterious and fascinating to outsiders because of its independent spirit and devil may care attitude. Maybe it is due to its history of being a former penal colony for England and its geographical location, that is has remained literally an island unto itself. Still Australia has based its way of existing and functioning in the world off the mother-daughter relationship it had with England. The structure of its government, laws and society are still influenced by the British way. It is interesting to see the British culture transplanted to such a diverse place. It is this influence that makes Australia a low context culture. They value open communication and a free flow of thoughts.

China

China is considered a collective due its communist framework and therefore has vastly different values from Australia and Japan. "In part, this was due to the collectivist tradition and the socialist ideology which both emphasized non-individualist gains" (Benson, 1998). Because of communism, Chinese believe everyone is to be treated the same. This limits the amount of freedoms one can experience and creates an oppressive atmosphere. This has contributes to China being isolated from much of the Western world until recently. John Benson explains, "China is a country whose existing practices and socio-economic background are far removed for advanced economics in terms of the political system, the concept of private ownership and the role of trade unions" (Benson, 1998). This creates barriers to entry because an organization must follow the host country's laws and regulations. This can be costly and time consuming. This is slowly changing, as technology becomes a part of the infrastructure and outside governing forces like the United Nations influence change of labor practices.

As a result of this collective social structure, the Chinese have different needs. They are not individual but team oriented. They have not been exposed to Western labor concepts like benefits and incentives. They are content to work for the sake of working and living. Benson writes, "Teamwork allows workers to regain autonomy and responsibility for their own work. This method is also cost effective and fewer middle managers are needed" (Benson, 1998). As a result of such teamwork, it can be confusing to an outsider to tell who is the decision maker and who should be approached for dialogue. In this respect, it is imperative one study the situation in a detailed manner but also keep an open mind as the player may change. Also because many Western systems are based on individual performance, for a country like China, new methods are needed. Instead of reviewing everyone separately, a team evaluation will be needed. Motivation and repercussions of bad work should also be communicated at a team level to have the greatest impact.

Japan

Japan's society is based on feudalism or the shogunate period where the people were dependent on the warrior class. As a result, the Japanese do not have much independent spirit like their Australian counterparts. Throughout Japan's modern times, the Japanese have developed their own definition of leadership that has a direct relationship on business practice. Mark Fritz explains, "leadership is the ability to articulate visions and goals to make the members of an organization contribute and cooperate spontaneously" (Fritz, 2003). This element of egalitarianism impedes the development of Japanese personality and this makes it difficult for an outsider to have the ability to create passionate leadership. This may make it harder to identify the decision maker unless one has knowledge of the Japanese leadership structure. The followers are placed in a situation of high expectation where karoushi (death from overwork) is not unusual. The leadership is male and age dominant where marriage is a factor for climbing the ladder. It creates a symbol of maturity, responsibility and integrity. The Japanese businessman is also expected to participate in corporate entertainment like karaoke. It is also a plus if he is fluent in English and has an MBA (Fritz, 2003).

These factors can influence the smooth operation of a multi-national corporation and cause problems of culture understanding if management is not carefully selected. It is sexiest to say but hiring a young single woman would be an obstacle in this area. A Western person also needs to adapt their way of communicating which is not loud or participate in open dialogue. Japanese conservation tends to be one-sided. Fritz compares the difference in dialogue as "communication in Japan is said to be like bowling as it tends to be in one direction. There are spectators around without much involvement. Communication in the West is like playing tennis -- the players mutually send and receive the ball" (Fritz, 2003). If an organization can instill loyalty and patient capital in the employee, as Lasserre and Schutte identify "the two most integral elements of business for Japanese leaders" (Lasserre and Schutte, 1999) then they have become a part of the collective. By simulating that of the high-culture and introducing elements of the collective, this changes the attitude of the Japanese worker. In a sense, all workers become a part of the organizational collective culture. A Westerner should keep this in mind as to promote a smooth transition, continue striving toward reaching goals and exceed needs and expectations.

Joint Venture and Strategy

This paper presents a hypothetical situation. Your company has a joint venture that manufactures consumer consumable goods like soaps, detergents and other hygiene products out of the Philippines for marketing in China and Indonesia. There are many strategies and management techniques to consider for this situation. Keeping in mind, the explosion of telecommunications in the region and those two specific countries, it is extremely important to focus on an e-strategy that includes use of e-marketing and e-commerce as tools for using the Internet for advertising and promotions.

Overall it has been a business practice to remain conservative when it comes to strategy. Every move made by a company is well researched and calculated. As a result, any opportunity to focus on markets outside the United States has remained as a joint venture only. Within the global market, there are higher standards set by foreign buyers. A proactive foreign investment strategy in the form of joint venture emphasizes the targeting of a few sectors and host countries, overseas promotion offices as public-private partnerships, competitive investment incentives and radically streamlined investment approval processes. Our organization called New England Old Soap Company has chosen this format of entry because it minimizes the risk involved for the company. Also as a joint venture the company also limits its involvement with the joint venture's operations. For an example, Acme Soap Suds before our interaction with them was a completely owned and operated Chinese company located outside of Beijing. As a joint venture, our company has money and interests invested in the global success but our company does not own Acme. As a result of the joint venture, Acme also benefits from this agreement, as they have been able to expand their factory locations to the Philippines.

Until the joint venture, they had… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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