Article Critique: Byaccapad ) "When White Women Cry

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¶ … byAccapad (2007) "When White Women Cry: How White Women's Tears Oppress Women of Color." The analysis is conducted by a careful review of the article and the study of Privileged Identity Exploration (PIE) model. Since PIE model is used to interpret the case that has been presented in the article, it was appropriate to understand the model in depth. The analysis will have a structured format having sections. Section I will elaborate the topic of article along with its credentials and research question. Section II highlights the procedures adopted by the author in presenting the research study. Section III outlines the method used by Accapad to analyze the situation/case study. Section IV will briefly state the major conclusion of the article and section V will include personal reflection of the article.

The Topic

"When White Women Cry: How White Women's Tears Oppress Women of Color" is written by Mamta Motwani Accapad and the article is focused on analysis of tensions that emerge from intersection of social identities. Gender and race are main identities discussed whereby race is assumes the dominant part of discussion. The author intends to explain how racial privilege of white women benefits them when dealing with women of color. Before being published, the article was reviewed by experts of the field. Being peer reviewed, the article provides a usefulknowledge resource. The article being in PDF format was sourced from internet through an online journal database.

The article does not carry an explicit research question being posed by the author to further investigate the answer to that question. The article however builds a hypothesis that intersection of gender and race, two important factor of our identity, does create complexities and two races, white women and women of color have been taken as reference races. The focus of article is on investigating the privileges that women of white race enjoy and use as tool of racial oppression while interacting with women of color. In order to build the case, the author presents a context that describes how identities of race and gender interact with each other and how societal norms are developed through these interactions. The author describes the topic and major emphasis of the study and then succinctly elaborates how the article will proceed in its theoretical explanation regarding intersection of women of white race with women of color.

The Procedures

The study is not quantitative therefore dependent and independent variables were not identified by the author. For the same reason, sampling plan was also not disused and only a single case study, a case of conversation between white woman and woman of color, is described. The application of Privileged Identity Exploration (PIE) model is also on the context of this case. No quantitative construct is used for research purpose. The article does not describe collection of data or a synthesis of other studies. The article after brief explanation of main purpose of study proceeds to provide the context of social identity creation. While presenting the context, the author does provide reference to previous studies on race, identity, and gender as constructs of social identity. The reference to other studies is within the article and no previous study on the topic has been synthesized. The previous work that the author cites while presenting the context of intersection between racial and gender identities, is relevant and supports the viewpoint developed in the article. For this purpose, the author introduces and describes the 'one-up/one-down identity' concept that explains white women's identity being associated to one privileged and one oppressed aspect. Women are oppressed and white being privileged.

The Method of Analysis

The article adopts Privileged Identity Exploration (PIE) model to analyze the privileged identity behaviors. PIE model is a qualitative construct developed by Watt (2007) on the basis of qualitative data such as reaction papers and personal narratives as well as interviews. After presenting the context of gender and race intersection in identities of white women and women of color, the author narrates the case study. The case study revolves around a dialogue between Anita, a woman of color and Susan, a woman of white race. There are some comments by Anita in context of treatments with people of color that Susan describes as 'offensive' and starts crying. The author uses PIE model as a tool to dissect the privileged notion of white race that Susan took offence to and started crying. Out of eight elements of PIE model, this article uses four qualitative elements that are denial, rationalization, false envy, and benevolence to deconstruct the privileged behavior of Susan.

Replication of procedures adopted

The procedure adopted in the article is not convenient to apply or repeat in any other case since it does not identifies dependent and independent variables and also the article vaguely applies a context to a reference. However, if empirical and qualitative validation of applied procedure is not required, the procedure adopted can be imitated in other studies. The method can be adopted in our social settings as well where racial and gender discrimination in normal practice. We can apply the general approach adopted by the author to understand our behaviors regarding gender, white race, and other discriminations. The author relies in inductive reasoning and strength of premises of arguments is most likely thought to hold the conclusion true but not a guarantee for the truth of conclusion reached. In fact, the model on which the case study analysis rests, the PIE model, is itself build on key an assumptions such as that exploration into privileged identity is an on-going process and not complete yet ii) privileged identity consciousness cannot be attained in totality iii) engaging in difficult dialogue is part of unlearning social oppression. Thus the conclusion drawn from applying such model shall not be considered as final and unalterable.

The Major Conclusions

The major conclusion drawn is related to the privileged identity behavior that white women display. However, the point of taking single case study is to enable its application on discrimination on grounds other than white or colored race and gender. Discrimination such as that based on sexism, homosexuality, etc. Regarding the four PIE elements that the author used, it was concluded that in context of denial, people of privileged identity toggle between roles to deny the existence of oppression. Secondly, people having privileged identity try to rationalize the status quo of oppression when engaged in a difficult dialogue. Thirdly, false envy by people of privileged identity is used when they show affection towards the oppressed and simplify the complexity of situation. Lastly, privileged class person presents social service or charity acts to show sensitivity towards an issue of conflict. The author concludes that the method used to apply on the case study can be replicated for other studies. The article also presents six strategies to manage difficult conversations without thwarting the purpose. The goal of any difficult conversation should not be ignored and focus shall not be shifted towards any other feeling or matter. Assumption observation should not be assumed but explained. Behaviors are also privileged therefore such behaviors shall also be deconstructed. Discussions should be conducted to analyze the behavioral and class-based discrimination by socially privileged. The features being discussed in the article are important to me since I remember discriminating women on the base of gender without having known that I actually discriminate. Though very subtle but such discriminations are present around us and the most interesting part of the article is where it is described that how Susan shifted the discussion from main aim of the discussion. The implications for the targeted population are that they can better understand the process through which they are discriminated.

Personal reflection

There are number of strengths of the article. Firstly it presents the arguments is simple and understandable format. Complex… [END OF PREVIEW]

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