Term Paper: Canada Public Policy: ADHD

Pages: 7 (2563 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 4  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Children  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] Mostly the public policy does not depend on evidence but on legal notion of "what is or is not in the public interest" (Dukelow, 2004).

Canada was the first country in western countries which introduced the Charter of Rights and Freedoms for individuals with disability in 1982. For this purpose the section (15)(1)(2) was included in the charter. Section (15) states that:

(1) "Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, sex, age, or mental or physical disability."

(2) Subsection (1) does not preclude any law, program or activity that has as its object the amelioration of conditions of disadvantaged individuals or groups including those that are disadvantaged because of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age, or mental or physical disability. (Government of Canada, 1982)

The endorsement of this section caused challenges to the institutions as they were liable to provide programs and services to the individuals with disabilities. This challenge was more difficult for school systems as well as ministries of education all through the country. The purpose of the enactment of this charter was to make equality rights momentous by stipulations expressed in the pertinent provincial legislation, set of laws, and policies including those applied to the field of health, education, and social services.

One of the most significant areas has been the special education. In Canada the education is considered a public service and it is the responsibility of every province to provide this service to every citizen including persons with disability. It is the duty of the Provincial Ministry of Education to specify who entitlement for free education is as well as how the education for a child with disability will be ensured through the School acts or relevant policies. In addition the education regulations and policies related to special education policies explain the essentials as the methods through which students with disabilities will be educated. (Sussel, 1995).

In Canada provinces and territories have made legislations according to which parents are responsible to involve in the education of their children and to consult teachers and School administrators about the education program and the needs of their disable child. Also parents can request to reviewing the education plan of an educator that may have an affect on their child. Similarly many provinces have outlined particular procedures through they make sure that parents are consulted while making an individual education plan for their child usually named as IPP or Individualized Education Plan (IEP).

The objective of crating and enacting a public policy or legislation related to special education is to make sure that students with disabilities are getting high quality education according to their special needs and abilities (MacKay & Burt-Gerrans, 2003; MacKay & Sutherland, 2006). Yet as is discussed above children with ADHD were not considered to deserve to get special attention and intervention at School. That is why many parents got the human rights groups and asked for assistance (Watkinson, 1999), while many others went to courts to complain regarding the application of special education public policies.

Policy Implications

At present Ministry of Education Ontario is providing assistance to the disable students through Ontario Student Assistance Program (OSAP). In addition the Ministry has established the Aboriginal Postsecondary Education and Training Bursary for the assistance of students with disability in pos-secondary education. There is also Ontario Disability Support Program (ODSP) for students with disability.

Current policy will impact the government as the expenditure will be increased. Schools will have to expand the facilities to the children with ADHD. As mentioned above the number of School age ADHD children in Ontario is 1.2 million in Ontario and to accommodate this population Government will need to increase the budget of the public Schools. At School level the facilities and staff will be upgraded to meet the requirements of this group. Yet it is a positive step because it is the duty of the government to provide educational facility for all its citizens on equal basis. The policy has been welcomed by parents and human rights organizations.

The policy has in particular has positive implication for parents as their ADHD children will be accommodated in School. This will be probe to be a great support for them financially and socially.

References

Andrea Golden. (2012) Students with ADHD have legal right to supports in school Accessed online at http://www.thestar.com/living/article/1112930 -- students-with-adhd-have-legal-right-to-supports-in-school?bn=1

Castellanos, X.F. And Tannock, R. (2002). Neuroscience of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The search for endophenotypes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 617-628.

Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Constitution Act, 1982, being Schedule B. To the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.), 1982, c. 11. Ottawa, ON. Government of Canada.

Dryer, R., Kiernan, M.J., and Tyson, G.A. (2006). Implicit theories of the characteristics and causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder held by parents and professionals in the psychological, educational, medical and allied health fields. Australian Journal of Psychology, 58, 79-92

Dukelow, D. (2004). The dictionary of Canadian law, 3rd edition. Toronto, ON, Thomson Canada Ltd.

Le Poire, B.A. And Dailey, R.M. (2005). Inconsistent nurturing as control theory: A new theory in family communication. In D.O. Braithwaite & L.A. Baxter (Eds.), Engaging theories in family communication: Multiple perspectives (pp. 83-98). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lifford, K.J., Harold, G.T., and Thapar, A. (2008). Parent-child relationships and ADHD symptoms: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 285-296.

MacKay, W. (2006). Connecting care and challenge: Tapping our human potential Inclusive education: A review of programming and services in New Brunswick. Halifax, NS.

MacKay, W. And Burt-Gerrans, J. (2003). Inclusion and diversity in education: Legal accomplishments and prospects for the future. Education & Law Journal 13(1): 77-103.

Michigan State University School Psychology Program. (2004). DSM-IV (text revision) definition: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Retrieved January 24, 2012, from https://www.msu.edu/course/cep/888/ADHD%20files/DSM-IV.htm.

Snyder, J., Cramer, A., Afrank, J., and Patterson, G.R. (2005). The contributions of ineffective discipline and parental hostile attributions of child misbehavior to the development of conduct problems at home and school. Developmental Psychology, 41, 30-41.

Sussel, T. (1995). Canada's legal revolution: Public education, the… [END OF PREVIEW]

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