Research Proposal: Caribbean Express Shipping the Forthcoming

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[. . .] Prior to instructional designers moving from development to implementation, they would do well to conduct a pilot testing to ensure deliverables will not have to be redeveloped. "The pilot testing process allows organizations to implement any necessary changes in the project before the expenses associated with materials development are realized" (Ibid.). Pilot testing also proves valuable as it confirms that the designer's work does work.

1. Draft the lesson plan:

a. Gaining attention

b. Direction

c. Recall Content

d. Application feedback -- level 1

e. Application feedback -- level 2

f. Application feedback -- level 3

g. Evaluation

h. Closure.

2. Draft the materials (where applicable).

3. Draft online content (where applicable).

4. Pilot test (as applicable).

5. Modify as necessary based on pilot testing evaluation.

6. Evaluate all development elements. (Hodell, pp. 14-15)

Implementation

At implementation, the most recognizable element of ADDIE, the learner meets the design and receives the content. In this element, the evaluation process, most familiar to designers and learners, occurs. Evaluation gauges the degree determined that learners meet objectives as well as the extent which facilitators or technologies deliver the project (Hodell, 1996).

1. Move project to active status.

2. Evaluate (Kirkpatrick levels 1 -- 3):

a. Reaction

b. Learning

c. Behavior.

3. Modify as necessary based on evaluation.

Evaluate all implementation elements. (Hodell, 1996, p. 15)

Evaluation

Evaluation transpires in each element of ADDIE and encompasses the instructional design process. Evaluation serves as a continual guard against the entrance to failure. When a designer works within the framework of the ADDlE model, nothing is left to chance (Hodell, 1996).

1. Review all five ADDIF elements continuously.

2. Revise evaluation process as necessary. (Hodell, 1996, p. 15)

FIT MODEL

F = Frequency (How often is task done?)

D = Difficulty (How difficult is it do, and therefore train for?)

I = Importance (How important is it to the job?) (Instructional Design, 2001, slide 48)

The Systematic Training Model

In the book, A handbook for training strategy, Sloma (1999) discusses the systematic training model, a model that reportedly fashioned approaches to training since the 1960s. Systematic training consists of: "Training undertaken on a planned basis as a result of applying a logical series of steps. In practice, the number and description of these steps tends to vary, but in general terms they would cover such aspects as:

Development of training policy

Identification of training needs" (Sloman, 1999, p. 45).

On its own, the systematic training model of training management, albeit, cannot provide a sufficient framework for the training professional to operate in.

In the book, Designing instruction: Making best practices work in standards-based classrooms, March and Peters (2007), present the information in Table 1 from Bloom.

Table 1.

Bloom's Taxonomy: Basic Definitions and Distinguishing Criteria (March & Peters, p. 117).

Knowledge

Comprehension

Application

Analysis

Synthesis

The valuation

Recall information from memory; file and retrieve literal details as stated

Put information into own words (i.,e, explain, translate, paraphrase, summarize; use given prompts, formulas, or cues to solve problems; make verifiable predictions

Solve problems, form hypotheses, are locate information without prompts, formulas, or cues

Separate a concept, idea, at object into component parts to determine how each part works together to comprise the whole

Rearrange or combine information to create a process or product new to the student

Make a judgment about the value or worth of an object, idea, concept, etc. using a set of valid criteria

Example

List the steps to howl a bill becomes a law.

Explain to a younger child how bill becomes a law, giving relevant examples.

Formulate a series of actions steps two repeal our Amanda a specific rule in the school are law and the community.

Examine a current deal being proposed as a law; which portions are likely to be of junction of oil to the democrats, republicans, and special interest groups; what are viable compromises?

Write a bill that could become a law to address an important social or economic issue (e.g., voting, Abuse of the Internet, school funding, etc.).

Decide the merits of a law or Beal (dealing with an import and social or economic issue) in terms of equity, cost-benefit, and impact.

Note: students working at these two levels are working "inside the material given by an author or the teacher; activities are situation-specific and have low rates of transfer.

Note: students working at these four levels are working "outside" the material given by an author or the teacher; they're applying or extending what they have learned to new situations.. Even if the activities are situation-specific, the rate of transfer to other situations gets progressively higher

Table 2.

Job Aid for Selecting Media (Instructional Design, 2001, slide 96).

Media Type

Handouts &

Pass-outs

Board

Flip Chart

Overhead

PowerPoint

Video

Uses

Explain and clarify

1

2

2

1

1

1

Basis for discussion

2

3

2

2

2

1

Organize discussion

1

2

1

2

2

3

Summarize

1

3

3

2

2

2

Education

1

1

1

1

3

1

Size of Audience

Small

1

2

2

1

3

2

Large

1

3

3

1

1

2

l = Most desirable; 2 = Alternative; 3 = Least desirable

Table 3.

Population Analysis (Hodell, 2006, p. 28)

Issue

Influences

Success?

Yes or No

Why

What Can I Do?

Age

Yes

Seniors may not have experience using computers, let alone the Internet.

Split the class into two

Group - those with computer experience and those without.

Culture

Education Level

Ethnicity

Gender

Incentive

Language

Skill

Motivation

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY

Analysis: RULE OF THUMB:

"If it's not on the task list, then you don't need to train on it"

(Instructional Design, 2001, slide 42).

Types of Analysis

The PowerPoint presentation, Instructional Design (2001) identifies the following types of analysis for those designing training programs to implement:

Job/Task (most common)

Performance/Gap

Organizational

Learning (Instructional Design, 2001, slide 38).

As noted earlier in the proposal, the CES considers the performance gap as the potential problem the training program needs to address.

Participants

This section should include the following elements: (a) the target population or sample (to which it is hoped the findings will be applicable) should be defined, consistent with the Statement of the Problem and the Research Question(s) sections; (b) the population from which the sample will actually be drawn should be specified (this should also include demographic information such as age, gender, and ethnicity); and (c) procedures for selecting the sample should be outlined, including justification for the sampling method (i.e., sampling procedure).

Instruments

Possible data collection methods for CES for the proposed training program include:

Focus groups

Interviews

Observation

Questionnaires

DELPHI (SME consensus) (Instructional Design, 2001, slide 36).

For the job and task analysis (JTA), the trainingdeveloper needs to break down the job into its component parts. This may be accomplished though data collection, interviews, job descriptions, and SMEs (Instructional Design, 2001).

Procedures

Design. The design is the actual structure or framework that provides the "when," or time in which data will be collected (e.g., correlational approach with a predictive design). The specific type of design should be written in the first sentences of this section, then followed up by the details of how the data will be collected (i.e., the methodological steps). Write this section in future tense. Convert to past tense where appropriate once data have been collected. The Procedures section is based directly on the research questions and the design of choice (i.e., this is the "how to" section of the examination) and should be written step-by-step in a linear fashion with a timeline. Steps pertaining to the control of issues related to internal and external validity should be discussed here.

Data analysis. Indicate the appropriate data analyses that will be used in the investigation. These data analyses should be based on the research questions and the research design selected for the study. Specify the procedures for reducing and coding the data. For quantitative studies, subsequent data analyses should include summary descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests (e.g., independent or dependent t test, ANOVA, and chi-square). For qualitative studies, the procedures to be followed for the analyses must also be addressed.

Limitations

Include any limitations, restrictions, or constraints that may affect the validity (i.e., internal or external) of the dissertation's outcome.

REFERENCES

Goodman, T. ed. (2007). Forbes… [END OF PREVIEW]

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APA Format

Caribbean Express Shipping the Forthcoming.  (2011, June 21).  Retrieved June 19, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/caribbean-express-shipping-forthcoming/5163713

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"Caribbean Express Shipping the Forthcoming."  21 June 2011.  Web.  19 June 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/caribbean-express-shipping-forthcoming/5163713>.

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"Caribbean Express Shipping the Forthcoming."  Essaytown.com.  June 21, 2011.  Accessed June 19, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/caribbean-express-shipping-forthcoming/5163713.