Cell Division All Living Things Essay

Pages: 4 (1475 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 2  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: Biology

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] These cells spend very little or no time in the G0 phase which is why they constantly multiply. The second type of cells is the stable cells. These cells remain in the G0 phase for most of the cell cycle but may re-enter the cycle when stimulated and if division is required. The third types of cells, which are the permanent cells, remain in the G0 phase once they mature and will not re-enter the cell cycle at any cost or with any amount of stimulation.

The reason that cells such as the epithelial cells continue to divide throughout their life even after maturity is because they are labile cells. These cells rarely enter the G0 phase and thus multiply indefinitely. Other examples of labile cells include cells of the digestive tract, respiratory tract and stem cells in the bone marrow. (Bolsover, Shephard, White, and Hyams 432)

Examples of the stable cells are liver cells, proximal tubule cells of kidneys and endocrine gland cells. These cells remain in the G0 phase until they are stimulated to enter the cell cycle.

Cells such as nerve cells lose their ability to replicate once they mature because they enter a quiescent state. They become terminally differentiated and continue to stay in the G0 phase for the rest of the organism's life. Here we consider that G0 and quiescent may be used interchangeably. These kinds of cells are known as permanent cells. Other kinds of permanent cells include red blood cells, heart muscle cells and eye lens cells. (Morgan )

Nerve cells are specialized cells which are responsible for transmitting signals to the brain so that bodily functions may be carried out. Nerve cells do not replicate once they mature. They do not divide and therefore if they are damaged or die, they cannot be replaced by new ones. Over the past several years' significant research has been conducted related to inducing cell division and replication in nerve cells. (Bolsover, Shephard, White, and Hyams 432)

According to researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine, mouse skin cells can be directly converted into three major parts of the nervous system. This success could refute the idea that Pluripotency is a must for one cell type to convert to another cell type. A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences says that skin cells are able to transform into neural precursor cells which have the ability to not only neurons but also astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Skin cells are able to convert into neural precursor cells within a period of three weeks. Though this research is still being carried out on mice findings imply heavily that generation of neural system cells that match humans will very soon be possible. (Conger)

Another research headed by researchers from Chalmers and the University of Gothenburg has been able to show the development neural chains on nanocellulose. The effort of trying to make human nerve cells divide and grow on cellulose had been going on since 2010 but just until recently the cells would die as they would not be able to stick to the scaffold. After experimenting further, a few changes were made to the cellulose and nanocellulose has now become a stable platform to cultivate and induce nerve cell division. Once the nerve cells have divided them form synapses i.e. make connections with one another. This research is being used to help study why synapses break down thus causing Alzheimer's.

Researchers at the University of Florida have found that human brain cells may replicate in a culture and inside mice. These cells have the qualities of self-renewal and adaptability just as stem cells and can multiply and remain in the cell cycle until they have reached in numbers of about 1016.

Though the above mentioned examples only reflect a portion of the actual efforts being put into inducing division in nerve cells, they are quite significant. Of course, research does not end here. The cell division system is far too complex and needs to be studied further to ensure that methods by which nerve cells can be revitalized be found so that diseases and abnormalities associated with their death can be eliminated.

References

Bolsover, S., E. Shephard, H. White, and J. Hyams. Cell Biology: A Short Course. 3. Wiley-

Blackwell, 2011. 432.

Conger, Krista. "Scientists turn skin cells into neural precursors, bypassing stem-cell stage." Stanford School of Medicine.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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