Cell Phone and the Brain Research Paper

Pages: 4 (1365 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 4  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Disease

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
Davis points out that most studies focus only on those using cell phones for approximately five years.

The World Health Organization has found cell phone radiation to cause factors associated with the risk of cancer. Some of these factors include; DNA damage, an increase in reactive oxygen species, weaken the blood-brain barrier and increase micronuclei (Cell Phone Use- Is it Safe? An Interview with Devra Lee Davis, PhD, MPH., 2011). However, these studies are limited to in vitro systems as opposed to live subjects. Yet, other studies indicate an association between increased use of cell phones over time and risks for developing brain cancer. Davis (2011) states that the risk doubles after using a cell phone for only ten years. A major contributor to this body of knowledge is the INTERPHONE study. The INTERPHONE study is an international effort to assess the association between cell phone usage and brain cancer.

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The INTERPHONE study itself was inconclusive. Although an increased risk of cancer, specifically glioma, was reported among users categorized as heavy cell phone users, most analysis of the data suggested no increase of cacogenic risk associated with cell phone use (Betts, 2010). The reason for inconclusive data is possibly due to methods and sampling. The method used to collect data for this study, and other studies, was self-reporting. Therefore, it is difficult to assess the actual amount of time a subject was exposed to radiation. In addition, the study had difficulty obtaining information from a large number of control cases. Another limitation is changes in the overall usage of the cell phone from the time the study began until the time it was published. Those falling into "heavy user" categories might now fall into "light user" categories as the reliance on cell phones has greatly increased (Betts, 2010).

Research Paper on Cell Phone and the Brain Assignment

Other studies do not support an association between cell phone use and brain cancer. In a study of 322 Japanese cell phone users with brain tumors and 683 members of a control group, there was no significant relation between cell users and glioma and meningioma (two types of brain cancer deemed most likely to be caused by an increase in radio-frequency near the ear) (Takebayashi, 2008). This held true even as use of cell phones increased in terms of duration of call or length of total time as a cell phone user (Takebayashi). In addition, the study measured the levels of radiation in the intracranial space as well as inside the tumors and found no significant difference between the level of radiation present when compared to the general population (Takebayashi). The design of this study mimicked the INTERPHONE study.

In summary, the literature suggests more work is needed to fully assess the association between cell phones and effects on the brain. Although some studies indicate an association between the two, others show no support for such relationship. In addition, because of errors associated with the common use of the self-reported method of data collection, even studies showing a relationship are not capable of reporting cause and effect relationships. Further, measurements are inconsistent between studies, making it difficult to show consistency across the body of literature on the topic. As cell phone use increases and the number of long-term cell users increases, more data will be available. Future research should seek to reduce the limitations of current studies by establishing valid measurements suitable for collecting data over time.

References

Agarwal, A. (2009). Cell phones: Modern man's nemesis? Reproductive Biomedicine Online 18(1), 148-157.

Betts, K.S. (2010). First combined analysis from INTERPHONE inconclusive. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(7), A290-A291.

Cell Phone Use- Is it Safe? An Interview with Devra Lee Davis, PhD, MPH. (2011). Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 17(4), 202-205.

Hardell, L.M. (2006). Tumour risk associated with use of cellular telephones or cordless desktop phones. World Journal of Surgical Oncology 4(74) .

Huber, R.T. (2002). fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG. Journal Of Sleep Research, 11(4), 289-295.

Regel, S. (2011). Cognitive performance measures in bioelectromagnetic research - Critical evaluation and recommendations. Environmental Health: A… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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