Cell Phone Radiation Term Paper

Pages: 6 (1758 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Physics

Cell Phone Radiation

The Silent Enemy

Cover-up?

Radiation

Concerns for All Ages

In Light on Concerns

The Big Question

The Privilege to Listen

CELL PHONE RADIATION

The Silent Enemy

Cover-up?

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Cover-up? Conspiracy? Cancer? These three words, according to Brown (59) conceivably could denote concerns not loudly proclaimed due to.".. major government cover-ups and big business hush-ups, with the poor, innocent bystander caught in the middle... But there is a possible danger out there." Potential health hazards that may evolve from cell phones include noise in an individual's ears, memory loss, headaches, malignant brain tumors and DNA damage. Although current, often downplayed warnings regarding cell phones may not be as critical as those by Gale, a bone-marrow specialist on the dangerous radiation levels in western Russia, after visiting to treat victims of Chernobyl's nuclear accident, cell phone uses could benefit from considering evidence regarding this particular "silent enemy." (Gale, 1986). Although numerous reports exist "exposing" potential health hazards the FDA reports on its website: "the available scientific evidence does not demonstrate any adverse health effects associated with the use of mobile phones." ("How Cell-phone... ") Potential for harm, nevertheless, this writer contends, definitely exists. If exposed to high levels of RF radiation, the FCC admits, radiation may damage human tissue, as RF radiation can heat human tissue, similar to the way a microwave s heat food, and the human body is not outfitted to disperse excessive quantities of heat. The eyes are noted to be especially, as no blood flow in this area.

TOPIC: Term Paper on Cell Phone Radiation Assignment

Each time a person communicates on a cell phone, a transmitter captures the sound of his/her voice and encodes it onto a continuous sine wave, conveys the signal to the antenna, which consequently transmits the signal. A sine wave, measured as frequency (number of times wave oscillates up and down per second) radiates from the antenna and fluctuates uniformly through space. ("How Cell-phone... ")

Cell phone radiation generates in the transmitter and emits through the antenna.

How Cell-phone... ")

Current statistics and studies regarding potential health hazards and warnings related to cell phone use are regularly confusing and conflicting. The following, however, have been noted to be possible "side effects" stemming from cell phones. http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/question648.htm" Headaches

Fatigue

Alzheimer's

Brain tumors

Parkinson's ("How Cell-phone... ")

Radiation

Radiation, Dees (166) states, "is not a man-made thing associated only with destructive weapons (and)...from many different natural sources, is a basic property of the universe that we have harnessed in ways both beneficial and destructive." Albert Einstein confirmed energy and matter present as basically varying forms of the same thing. This energy and matter may be displayed in manners that range from destructive, such as a nuclear weapon, or constructive, such from the sun, which generates life.

Negative concepts or the term radiation associated usually evolve from the most energetic forms of radiation, "often called hard (or ionizing) radiation, especially X rays. Less specifically, some people may associate radiation with radioactive materials and nuclear weapons."

The

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) reports that electromagnetic radiation, composed of electric and magnetic energy waves travel at the speed of light. Cell phones, with low-power transmitters, operate on approximately 0.75 to 1 watt of power. The phone transmitter's position may vary but generally is placed near the cell phone's antenna. When talking on a cell phone, a person usually holds the phone against his/her head, the position where the likelihood exists some radiation will be absorbed by human tissue. ("How Cell-phone... ")

All electromagnetic energy falls some place on the electromagnetic spectrum.

How Cell-phone... ")

II. Concerns for All Ages

In Light on Concerns

Warning: fortune cookies don't care what happens to you." (Cooley, 1988)

Even though cell phones and fortune cookies may not initially appear to have a common thread, the concept that connects them is that those who market cell phones, in a similar sense, do not usually consider what happens to those who purchase and use cell phones. In the study completed by Salford et al. funded by a grant from the Swedish Council for Work Life Research. Completed during 2002, the authors examine potential risks of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields for the human body. Their previous studies posit.".. weak pulsed microwaves give rise to a significant leakage of albumin through the blood-brain barrier." Through the course of examining this growing concern for society, Salford et al. "... found highly significant (p < 0.002) evidence for neuronal damage in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia in the brains of exposed rats." Although this current study did not confirm that RF EMFs may promote or induce cancer growth, ultimately, cell phone use "may result in reduced brain reserve capacity that might be unveiled by other later neuronal disease or even the wear and tear of aging. " Negative effects may be experienced in a daily cell phone usurer's middle-aged years, For those in their younger years, however, particularly in regard to children, Poulter (8) notes Sir William Stewart, England's chief adviser on mobile phone safety, to warn: "If there are risks - and we think there may be risks - then the people who are going to be most affected are children, and the younger the child, the greater the danger." Sir William, who initially warned of cell phone dangers in 2000, currently accuses cell phone manufactures of deliberately keeping people in the dark about their headsets' emission levels. On the positive side, however, some firms now discourage sales targeted directly at young children. The bottom line, Sir William and English government experts agree, in light of latest research, where scientists admit that a genuine radiation risk to youngsters' brains does exist, "Parents should not buy young children mobile phones." (Poulter 8)

III. The Big Question

The Privilege to Listen

It is the province of knowledge to speak, and it is the privilege of wisdom to listen." (Holmes, 1872).

Amidst today's province of confusing knowledge, deciphering what facts to listen to regarding: "How harmful are cell phones and what preventive measures can you take?" (Brown 59) presents a challenging privilege.

While awaiting the answer to this "Big Question," the following recommendations identify several ways to reduce potential risks from cell phones:

Use a hands-free headset.

Use a phone that places the antenna as far away from you as possible.

Extend the antenna during use.

Limit calls inside buildings.

Use the phone in open spaces as often as possible.

Limit use by children. ("How Cell-phone... ")

Questions and controversies regarding EMF waves dangers began more than 50 years ago. Some individual insist no study ever conclusively determined EMF waves in fact, harmed humans. During 2000, however, amidst increasing fears regarding low-powered radio signals or electromagnetic frequency (EMF) waves from cell phones, Dr. George Carlo, chairman of Wireless Technology Research in Washington, D.C., on ABC-TV's 20/20 reported a "WTR study showed a correlation between a higher incidence of brain cancer and a greater risk of rare neurological tumors and DNA damage among the users of handheld phones vs. users of other types of phones." (Brown 59) To counter Dr. Carlos findings, nevertheless, Thomas Wheeler, CTIA's association president argues, "wireless phones are safe and meet the standards adopted by the U.S. government." says association president Thomas Wheeler. Quoting the World Health Organization, Wheeler says, "There is no convincing evidence that [EMF] waves induce or promote cancer."

The truth, amidst the controversy over cell phone harm, continues to be debated. Points and counter points include:

Vague safety standards exist as particular cell phones may pass the FCC's safety requirements when they are tested in one position, but then they may fail to pass when held in a different position, 20/20 reported. (Brown 59)

Some individuals have determined to cease using cell phones due to concerns that radiation may be linked to "diseases such as asthma, Alzheimer's and cancer." ("Alarm Grows over Mobile" 23)

Some marketers prey today's fear of radiation and market fraudulent devices, claiming they will protect individuals. (Nordenberg 19)

What a cell phone is held to close to a person's head, Brown (59) reports, "as much as 60% of the microwave radiation is absorbed by and actually penetrates the brain."

More distance between a cell phone and a person's body may decrease radiation risks. Replacing a regular cell phone with a mobile phone with an outside antenna may also provide another possible positive option. (Nordenberg 19)

More research regarding cell phone radiation and the harm it potentially causes to humans needs to be completed. Brown (59) quotes Dr. Stanley Kornhauser, president of the National Institute for Electromedical Information Inc., to state: "Consumers must understand that there are several questions that still remain unanswered concerning electromagnetic waves. But the big question.., is should we take comfort in reports that evidence regarding cell phone danger is not conclusive or should we take steps to mitigate or reduce exposure to EMF waves even if the scientific jury is still out?'"

Today's cell phone users, this researcher posits, would do well not to only listen to the person on the line… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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