Cellular Function How Do Cells Term Paper

Pages: 3 (982 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 6  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Medical and Medicine - Nursing

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Hyponatremia is one of the signs and symptoms of electrolyte imbalances, sighs include; muscle weakness this is due to osmotic swelling of cells. Lethargy, confusion, seizure, and comma this is as a result of altered neurotransmission .Due to decreased extracellular circulating volume one experience hypertension and tachycardia, vomiting, nausea and abdominal cramps as a result of edema which affects receptors in the brain or vomiting center of the brain system, there is also decreased serum osmolality and an increase in red blood cells counts. (Stephen, 2009).

Hypernatremia signs and symptoms include; agitation, restlessness, fever and reduced level of consciousness due to altered, cellular metabolism .water shift from intracellular to extracellular fluid result to hypertension and tachycardia there is increase viscosity of saliva due to thirst and rough tongue as a result of fluid shift. Dyspnea, respiratory arrest, and death from increase in osmotic pressure.

Hyperkalemia manifests results such as; ECG changes and cardiac arrest due to hyperpolarization and alterations in repolarization, experience of abdominal cramps due to decreased gastric motility.

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My 77-year-old mother developed electrolyte imbalance as a result of drinking too much fluids, the 8 glasses that she had been recommended and the Pepsi and coffee drinks which eventually led her to hypernatremia. Diagnosis of COPD shows present of mixed disorders whereby COPD produces chronically elevated PaC02 levels and high HCO3 levels as compensatory mechanism. Incase this chronically PaCO2 is decreased HCO3 levels remain elevated enhance causing metabolic alkalosis.

Pancreas is a two organ in one that is it is an endocrine and exocrine gland. Pancreatitis takes two forms that is edematous pancreatitis and Necrotizing pancreatitis. Edematous pancreatitis caused fluid accumulation and swelling while necrotizing pancreatitis which is normally severe cause's death and tissue damage (Tierney, et.al 2011).

Term Paper on Cellular Function How Do Cells Assignment

Pancreatitis is an inflammatory process which involves release of chemical mediators such as cytokines. The pancreatitis condition leads to fluid and electrolyte disorder as its causes includes; obstruction, genetic predisposition, toxic metabolic process, hypertriglyceridemia, and infectious agents. Obstruction causes blockage of bile duct resulting to blockage of bile passage higher up in the drainage system. Lesion such as neoplasm most often obstructs the flow of juices and cause obstruction auto digestion and pancreatitis (mcCance, et.al.2010).

Toxic metabolic processes which include ethanol abuse and certain drug regimes, it sets up a transient but dangerous drop in blood flow which causes a vicious cycle of repeated systemic occurrences leading to cellular damage (Whitcomb, 2010, p.20).


Brasher, V.H. (2006) clinical Application of pathophysiology (3rd edition).St. Louis: Mosby.

McCance, K.A.and Huether, S.E (2010).pathophysiology: the biological basis for disease in adults and children (6th edition).St. Louis: Mosby.

Suzanna and Jennifer (2006) Ageing definition, mechanisms and the magnitude of the problem best practice res clinic Gastroenterology.

Stephen McPhee, M.D., (2009) current medical Diagnosis and Treatment.

Tierney L.M, et.al. (2011).Current medical diagnosis and Treatment, 45th edition, New York.

Whitcomb Dc. (2010) clinical practice. Acute pancreatitis. The new England Journal of Medicine [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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